Skeptical Raptor's Blog hunting pseudoscience in the internet jungle

What does science say about GMO’s–they’re safe


scaremongering-WordleThe science deniers of the world, whether they deny evolution, global warming, vaccines, or GMO safety, spend their time inventing pseudoscience to support their beliefs and claims. As I wrote a few weeks ago, “Pseudoscience is easy. It doesn’t take work. It’s the lazy man’s (or woman’s) “science.” But it has no value, and because it lacks high quality evidence in support of it, it should be dismissed, and it should not be a part of the conversation.”

Alternatively, real science is really hard. And it takes time. And it’s based on high quality evidence. And it is repeated. And it is almost always published in high quality journals. As I’ve said a thousand times, real science takes hard work and is intellectually challenging. You just don’t wake up one day and say “I’m a scientist.” No, it requires college, graduate school, teaching, working in world class laboratories, publishing, defending your ideas to your peers, and one day, if you don’t stop, you will be an authority in your little field of science.

The anti-GMO crowd is mostly lazy. They have this luddite belief that all technology is bad, but have absolutely no evidence to support it. Sure, they pick out one or two poorly done articles and then shout for all the world to hear “GMO’s are dangerous to…bees, humans, babies, whales, trees” over and over and over again.  Yet what do the GMO refusers really bring to the table? 

Without really trying (though it took several days to read through the articles), I found 112 peer-reviewed articles, mostly published in moderate to high impact factor journals that support the safety of GMO crops over a wide range of hypotheses: from transgenic particles in bovine milk to how non targeted insects survive (or don’t). I found several meta reviews, which, as I’ve said before, are the highest quality sources of evidence. None of this research was sponsored by corporations, and frankly, I didn’t have enough time to read all those articles in addition to the ones included here. I even went to the effort to find the 2012 Impact Factors for each of the journals, so you know the quality of the journal. Note that impact factors, though I rely on them, are an imperfect measurement, much like a batting average for a baseball player doesn’t fully explain the skills that he may or may not have.

There were hundreds of other articles I could have included. But these are the ones I judged to be the best. And if you add up all of the conclusions written, a consensus forms. And that is that GMO’s are generally safe. There will be no transgenic DNA in your glass of milk. The transgenic DNA isn’t going to be absorbed through your intestine and cause some autoimmune reaction.

BUT, if the GMO refusers want to provide real scientific evidence that something does happen, I’ll be glad to read it. But be forewarned, if it is junk science, I will call it junk science, like Gilles-Eric Séralini et al.’s paper about GMO corn causing cancer. Except it was poorly designed, utilized bad statistics, and really provided no evidence whatsoever for anything except that Séralini is an incompetent scientist.

Science has provided substantial evidence supporting the assertion that GMO’s are safe. GMO refusers have provided precious little evidence, save for Cherry PickingSpecial Pleading, and a few Strawman Arguments. Oh, and the occasional Poisoning the Well with the Big Agra shill accusations. Like I said in another article, “The typical pseudoscientist will use logical fallacies to state very definitively that “it’s proven.” It’s the same whether it’s creationism (the belief that some magical being created the world some small number of years ago), alternative medicine (homeopathy, which is nothing but water, has magical properties to cure everything from cancer to male pattern baldness), or vaccine denialists. The worst problem is that in the world of the internet, if you Google these beliefs, the number of websites and hits that seem to state that they are THE TRUTH™ overwhelm those that are more skeptical or critical.” 

But the most important thing is that science isn’t a vote based on the number of papers published. But when the consensus is so heavily weighted to the safety of GMO’s, it’s hard to see anything but a landslide. Now, I know that the typical GMO refuser will cherry pick a couple of poorly designed studies and try to refute all of these. Or they’ll read one or two of the articles, and pick out a sentence that might say “GMO fields showed slightly less insect activity than unused land” (while ignoring all of the other sentences). 

You’re asserting that GMO’s are dangerous. Provide evidence. And it better be published in a relatively high impact journal.

 

Key citations:

  1. Álvarez-Alfageme F, von Burg S, Romeis J. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022690. Epub 2011 Jul 28. PubMed PMID: 21829479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3145666. Impact Factor: 3.730.
  2. Anilkumar B, Reddy AG, Kalakumar B, Rani MU, Anjaneyulu Y, Raghunandan T, Reddy YR, Jyothi K, Gopi KS. Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton Plants. Toxicol Int. 2010 Jul;17(2):99-101. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.72680. PubMed PMID: 21170255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2997465. Impact Factor: 0.510.
  3. Atkinson HJ, Johnston KA, Robbins M. Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet. J Nutr. 2004 Feb;134(2):431-4. PubMed PMID: 14747684. Impact factor: 3.302
  4. Aulrich K, Böhme H, Daenicke R, Halle I, Flachowsky G. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition. Arch Tierernahr. 2001;54(3):183-95. PubMed PMID: 11865766.
  5. Batista R, Saibo N, Lourenço T, Oliveira MM. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 4;105(9):3640-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707881105. Epub 2008 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 18303117; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2265136. Impact factor: 9.681.
  6. Bakan B, Melcion D, Richard-Molard D, Cahagnier B. Fungal growth and fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Feb 13;50(4):728-31. PubMed PMID: 11829636. Impact factor: 2.906.
  7. Baudo MM, Lyons R, Powers S, Pastori GM, Edwards KJ, Holdsworth MJ, Shewry PR. Transgenesis has less impact on the transcriptome of wheat grain than conventional breeding. Plant Biotechnol J. 2006 Jul;4(4):369-80. PubMed PMID: 17177803. Impact factor: 5.442
  8. Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn on mouse testicular development by dual parameter flow cytometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 7;52(7):2097-102. PubMed PMID: 15053558. Impact factor: 2.906
  9. Brake DG, Evenson DP. A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Jan;42(1):29-36. PubMed PMID: 14630127. Impact factor: 3.010
  10. Böhme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs. Arch Tierernahr. 2001;54(3):197-207. PubMed PMID: 11865767.
  11. Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs. Arch Anim Nutr. 2007 Aug;61(4):308-16. PubMed PMID: 17760308. Impact factor: 1.095 (fairly low, but a new journal)
  12. Borejsza-Wysocka E, Norelli JL, Aldwinckle HS, Malnoy M. Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period. BMC Biotechnol. 2010 Jun 3;10:41. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-10-41. PubMed PMID: 20525262; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2910661. Impact Impact: 2.165.
  13. Brown NM, Setchell KD. Animal models impacted by phytoestrogens in commercial chow: implications for pathways influenced by hormones. Lab Invest. 2001 May;81(5):735-47. PubMed PMID: 11351045. Impact Factor: 3.961
  14. Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes. Eur J Nutr. 2008 Mar;47(2):99-103. doi: 10.1007/s00394-008-0702-2. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 18320254. Impact factor: 3.127.
  15. Cao S, Xu W, Luo Y, He X, Yuan Y, Ran W, Liang L, Huang K. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats. Mol Biosyst. 2011 Jul;7(7):2304-10. doi: 10.1039/c1mb05076a. Epub 2011 May 19. PubMed PMID: 21594293. Impact Factor: 3.350.
  16. Catchpole GS, Beckmann M, Enot DP, Mondhe M, Zywicki B, Taylor J, Hardy N, Smith A, King RD, Kell DB, Fiehn O, Draper J.Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 4;102(40):14458-62. Epub 2005 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 16186495; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1242293. Impact factor: 9.681.
  17. Cattaneo MG, Yafuso C, Schmidt C, Huang CY, Rahman M, Olson C, Ellers-Kirk C, Orr BJ, Marsh SE, Antilla L, Dutilleul P, Carrière Y.Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16;103(20):7571-6. Epub 2006 May 4. PubMed PMID: 16675554; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1457091. Impact factor: 9.681.
  18. Chambers PA, Duggan PS, Heritage J, Forbes JM. The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002 Jan;49(1):161-4. PubMed PMID: 11751781. Impact factor: 5.338
  19. Cheeke TE, Rosenstiel TN, Cruzan MB. Evidence of reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in multiple lines of Bt maize. Am J Bot. 2012 Apr;99(4):700-7. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1100529. Epub 2012 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 22473978. Impact factor: 2.586
  20. Chen ZL, Gu H, Li Y, Su Y, Wu P, Jiang Z, Ming X, Tian J, Pan N, Qu LJ. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato. Toxicology. 2003 Jun 30;188(2-3):297-307. PubMed PMID: 12767699. Impact Factor: 3.763
  21. Cheng KC, Beaulieu J, Iquira E, Belzile FJ, Fortin MG, Strömvik MV. Effect of transgenes on global gene expression in soybean is within the natural range of variation of conventional cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3057-67. doi: 10.1021/jf073505i. Epub 2008 Apr 23. PubMed PMID: 18433101. Impact factor 2.906.
  22. Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. J Anim Sci. 2003 Oct;81(10):2546-51. PubMed PMID: 14552382. Impact Factor: 2.093.
  23. Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Murata H, Sultana P, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamamoto S, Miyazaki S, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11. J Food Prot. 2004 Feb;67(2):365-70. PubMed PMID: 14968971. Impact Factor: 1.832.
  24. Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y. Detection of Cry1Ab protein in gastrointestinal contents but not visceral organs of genetically modified Bt11-fed calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Mar;45(2):72-5. PubMed PMID: 12678290. Impact Factor: 0.66 (journal was discontinued in 2004, which means the impact factor drops every year since closing).
  25. Chrenková M, Sommer A, Ceresnáková Z, Nitrayová S, Prostredná M. Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats. Arch Tierernahr. 2002 Jun;56(3):229-35. PubMed PMID: 12391907.
  26. Cleveland TE, Dowd PF, Desjardins AE, Bhatnagar D, Cotty PJ. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops. Pest Manag Sci. 2003 Jun-Jul;59(6-7):629-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 12846313. Impact Factor: 2.594.
  27. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Kubista M, Messeguer J, Pla M. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices. Plant Mol Biol. 2010 Jun;73(3):349-62. doi: 10.1007/s11103-010-9624-5. Epub 2010 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 20349115. Impact Factor: 3.518
  28. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Messeguer J, Melé E, Palaudelmàs M, Pla M. Gene expression profiles of MON810 and comparable non-GM maize varieties cultured in the field are more similar than are those of conventional lines. Transgenic Res. 2009 Oct;18(5):801-8. doi: 10.1007/s11248-009-9266-z. Epub 2009 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 19396622. Impact factor: 2.906.
  29. Dai PL, Zhou W, Zhang J, Cui HJ, Wang Q, Jiang WY, Sun JH, Wu YY, Zhou T. Field assessment of Bt cry1Ah corn pollen on the survival, development and behavior of Apis mellifera ligustica. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012 May;79:232-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Feb 23. PubMed PMID: 22364780. Impact Factor: 2.203.
  30. Defernez M, Gunning YM, Parr AJ, Shepherd LV, Davies HV, Colquhoun IJ. NMR and HPLC-UV profiling of potatoes with genetic modifications to metabolic pathways. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6075-85. PubMed PMID: 15453669. Impact Factor: 2.906.
  31. Di Carli M, Villani ME, Renzone G, Nardi L, Pasquo A, Franconi R, Scaloni A, Benvenuto E, Desiderio A. Leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb;8(2):838-48. doi: 10.1021/pr800359d. PubMed PMID: 19099506. Impact factor: 5.056
  32. Domingo JL, Giné Bordonaba J. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants. Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):734-42. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. Epub 2011 Feb 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 21296423. Impact Factor: 6.248
  33. Dowd PF. Indirect reduction of ear molds and associated mycotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis corn under controlled and open field conditions: utility and limitations. J Econ Entomol. 2000 Dec;93(6):1669-79. PubMed PMID: 11142297. Impact factor: 1.600.
  34. Dowd PF. Biotic and abiotic factors limiting efficacy of Bt corn in indirectly reducing mycotoxin levels in commercial fields. J Econ Entomol. 2001 Oct;94(5):1067-74. PubMed PMID: 11681667. Impact factor: 1.600.
  35. Dubouzet JG, Ishihara A, Matsuda F, Miyagawa H, Iwata H, Wakasa K. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of high-tryptophan rice expressing a mutant anthranilate synthase alpha subunit. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(12):3309-21. Epub 2007 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 17804429. Impact factor: 5.242.
  36. Duan JJ, Marvier M, Huesing J, Dively G, Huang ZY. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt crops on honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS One. 2008 Jan 9;3(1):e1415. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001415. PubMed PMID: 18183296; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2169303. Impact Factor: 3.730.
  37. Duc C, Nentwig W, Lindfeld A. No adverse effect of genetically modified antifungal wheat on decomposition dynamics and the soil fauna community–a field study. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25014. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025014. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PubMed PMID: 22043279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3197184. Impact Factor: 3.730.
  38. Duggan PS, Chambers PA, Heritage J, Forbes JM. Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Oct 1;191(1):71-7. PubMed PMID: 11004402. Impact factor: 2.049.
  39. Eizaguirre M, Albajes R, López C, Eras J, Lumbierres B, Pons X. Six years after the commercial introduction of Bt maize in Spain: field evaluation, impact and future prospects. Transgenic Res. 2006 Feb;15(1):1-12. Review. PubMed PMID: 16475005. Impact factor: 2.609.
  40. Enot DP, Beckmann M, Overy D, Draper J. Predicting interpretability of metabolome models based on behavior, putative identity, and biological relevance of explanatory signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 3;103(40):14865-70. Epub 2006 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 16990432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1595442. Impact factor: 9.681.
  41. Ewen SW, Pusztai A. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1353-4. PubMed PMID: 10533866. Impact Factor: 39.060 (one of the highest impact factor medical journals)
  42. Finamore A, Roselli M, Britti S, Monastra G, Ambra R, Turrini A, Mengheri E. Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Dec 10;56(23):11533-9. doi: 10.1021/jf802059w. PubMed PMID: 19007233. Impact Factor: 2.906
  43. Flachowsky G, Halle I, Aulrich K. Long term feeding of Bt-corn–a ten-generation study with quails. Arch Anim Nutr. 2005 Dec;59(6):449-51. PubMed PMID: 16429830. Impact Factor: 1.095.
  44. Fonseca C, Planchon S, Renaut J, Oliveira MM, Batista R. Characterization of maize allergens – MON810 vs. its non-transgenic counterpart. J Proteomics. 2012 Apr 3;75(7):2027-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 22270010. Impact Factor: 4.088.
  45. Gao MQ, Hou SP, Pu DQ, Shi M, Ye GY, Chen XX. Multi-generation effects of Bt rice on Anagrus nilaparvatae, a parasitoid of the nontarget pest Nilapavarta lugens. Environ Entomol. 2010 Dec;39(6):2039-44. doi: 10.1603/EN10035. PubMed PMID: 22182572. Impact Factor: 1.314.
  46. Gizzarelli F, Corinti S, Barletta B, Iacovacci P, Brunetto B, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Onori R, Miraglia M, Panzini G, Di Felice G, Tinghino R.Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified soybean protein extract in a murine model of oral allergen-specific sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006 Feb;36(2):238-48. PubMed PMID: 16433863. Impact Factor: 4.789
  47. Gregersen PL, Brinch-Pedersen H, Holm PB. A microarray-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles during grain development in transgenic and wild type wheat. Transgenic Res. 2005 Dec;14(6):887-905. PubMed PMID: 16315094. Impact factor: 2.609.
  48. Gruber H, Paul V, Meyer HH, Müller M. Determination of insecticidal Cry1Ab protein in soil collected in the final growing seasons of a nine-year field trial of Bt-maize MON810. Transgenic Res. 2012 Feb;21(1):77-88. doi: 10.1007/s11248-011-9509-7. Epub 2011 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 21499757. Impact factor: 2.609.
  49. Gruber H, Paul V, Guertler P, Spiekers H, Tichopad A, Meyer HH, Muller M. Fate of Cry1Ab protein in agricultural systems under slurry management of cows fed genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: a quantitative assessment. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 13;59(13):7135-44. doi: 10.1021/jf200854n. Epub 2011 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 21604675. Impact Factor: 2.906.
  50. Huang F, Andow DA, Buschman LL.. Success of the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy after 15 years of Bt crop use in North America. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 2011; 140:1–16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01138.x. Impact Factor: 1.669.
  51. Jenkins H, Hardy N, Beckmann M, Draper J, Smith AR, Taylor J, Fiehn O, Goodacre R, Bino RJ, Hall R, Kopka J, Lane GA, Lange BM, Liu JR, Mendes P, Nikolau BJ, Oliver SG, Paton NW, Rhee S, Roessner-Tunali U, Saito K, Smedsgaard J, Sumner LW, Wang T, Walsh S, Wurtele ES, Kell DB. A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results. Nat Biotechnol. 2004 Dec;22(12):1601-6. PubMed PMID: 15583675. Impact Factor: 32.438
  52. Jia S, Wang F, Shi L, Yuan Q, Liu W, Liao Y, Li S, Jin W, Peng H. Transgene flow to hybrid rice and its male-sterile lines. Transgenic Res. 2007 Aug;16(4):491-501. Epub 2007 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 17443417. Impact Factor: 2.609
  53. Kiliç A, Akay MT. A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1164-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2007.11.016. Epub 2007 Dec 5. PubMed PMID: 18191319. Impact Factor: 3.010
  54. Kleter GA, Peijnenburg AA, Aarts HJ. Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2005;2005(4):326-52. PubMed PMID: 16489267; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1364539. Impact Factor: 2.880
  55. Kleter GA, Bhula R, Bodnaruk K, Carazo E, Felsot AS, Harris CA, Katayama A, Kuiper HA, Racke KD, Rubin B, Shevah Y, Stephenson GR, Tanaka K, Unsworth J, Wauchope RD, Wong SS. Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective. Pest Manag Sci. 2007 Nov;63(11):1107-15. Review. PubMed PMID: 17880042. Impact Factor: 2.594
  56. Kleter GA, Peijnenburg AA. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE – binding linear epitopes of allergens. BMC Struct Biol. 2002 Dec 12;2:8. Epub 2002 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 12477382; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC139984. Impact Factor: 2.099 (an extraordinarily high Impact Factor for a 2 year old journal).
  57. Knudsen I, Poulsen M. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;49(1):53-62. PubMed PMID: 17719159. Impact Factor: 2.132
  58. Kuiper HA, Noteborn HP, Peijnenburg AA. Adequacy of methods for testing the safety of genetically modified foods. Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1315-6. PubMed PMID: 10533854. Impact Factor: 39.060
  59. Kusano M, Redestig H, Hirai T, Oikawa A, Matsuda F, Fukushima A, Arita M, Watanabe S, Yano M, Hiwasa-Tanase K, Ezura H, Saito K.Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment.PLoS One. 2011 Feb 16;6(2):e16989. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016989. PubMed PMID: 21359231; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3040210. Impact Factor: 3.710.
  60. Le Gall G, DuPont MS, Mellon FA, Davis AL, Collins GJ, Verhoeyen ME, Colquhoun IJ. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 23;51(9):2438-46. PubMed PMID: 12696918. Impact Factor: 2.906.
  61. Le Gall G, Colquhoun IJ, Davis AL, Collins GJ, Verhoeyen ME. Metabolite profiling of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR spectroscopy as a tool to detect potential unintended effects following a genetic modification. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 23;51(9):2447-56. Erratum in: J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):3210. PubMed PMID: 12696919. Impact Factor: 2.906.
  62. Lehesranta SJ, Davies HV, Shepherd LV, Nunan N, McNicol JW, Auriola S, Koistinen KM, Suomalainen S, Kokko HI, Kärenlampi SO.Comparison of tuber proteomes of potato varieties, landraces, and genetically modified lines. Plant Physiol. 2005 Jul;138(3):1690-9. Epub 2005 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 15951487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1176438. Impact Factor: 6.555
  63. Li X, Huang K, He X, Zhu B, Liang Z, Li H, Luo Y. Comparison of nutritional quality between Chinese indica rice with sck and cry1Ac genes and its nontransgenic counterpart. J Food Sci. 2007 Aug;72(6):S420-4. PubMed PMID: 17995700. Impact Factor 1.775
  64. Lutz B, Wiedemann S, Einspanier R, Mayer J, Albrecht C. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1453-6. PubMed PMID: 15740023. Impact Factor: 2.906.
  65. Malatesta M, Boraldi F, Annovi G, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Biggiogera M, Quaglino D. A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008 Nov;130(5):967-77. doi: 10.1007/s00418-008-0476-x. Epub 2008 Jul 22. PubMed PMID: 18648843. Impact Factor: 2.613
  66. Malatesta M, Tiberi C, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Manuali E, Biggiogera M. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Eur J Histochem. 2005 Jul-Sep;49(3):237-42. PubMed PMID: 16216809. Impact Factor: 2.412.
  67. Marvier M, McCreedy C, Regetz J, Kareiva P. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates. Science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1475-7. PubMed PMID: 17556584. Impact Factor: 31.027.
  68. McCallum EJ, Cunningham JP, Lücker J, Zalucki MP, De Voss JJ, Botella JR. Increased plant volatile production affects oviposition, but not larval development, in the moth Helicoverpa armigera. J Exp Biol. 2011 Nov 1;214(Pt 21):3672-7. doi: 10.1242/jeb.059923. PubMed PMID: 21993797. Impact Factor: 3.236.
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