autism_vaccine_syringe

Real scientific evidence says vaccines and autism are unrelated

On 28 March 2014, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that new data show that the estimated number of children identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a disorder of neural development, usually appearing before the age of 3 years, characterized by impaired social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication, and by restricted, repetitive or stereotyped behavior, continues to rise.  The picture of ASD in US communities is changing.

CDC Study on autism spectrum disorder rates

According to the study:

  1. About 1 in 68 children (or 14.7 per 1,000 8 year olds) were identified with ASD. This data was culled from studies on 8-year-old children living in 11 communities across the country. The data was gathered in this manner to get a detailed analysis of representative subsection of the USA, but it does not statistically represent the entire population of children in the United States.
  2. This new estimate is roughly 30% higher than the estimate for 2008 (1 in 88), roughly 60% higher than the estimate for 2006 (1 in 110), and roughly 120% higher than the estimates for 2002 and 2000 (1 in 150). We don’t know what is causing this increase.

In fact, the researchers carefully clarified the limitations of this study (probably to reduce panic):

Consistent with previous reports from the ADDM Network, findings from the 2010 surveillance year were marked by significant variations in ASD prevalence by geographic area, sex, race/ethnicity, and level of intellectual ability.

The extent to which this variation might be attributable to diagnostic practices, underrecognition of ASD symptoms in some racial/ethnic groups, socioeconomic disparities in access to services, and regional differences in clinical or school-based practices that might influence the findings in this report is unclear.

In other words, some of it may be due to the way children are identified, diagnosed, and served in their local communities, but exactly how much is unknown. There is so much variance in the data, it is almost impossible to determine a strong correlation between the increased diagnosis and some causal, environmental factor.

Myths about vaccines and autism

Of course, there is a ridiculous belief that increased vaccinations and poorly designed vaccines, with thiomersal made out to be the lead villain, has led to the increased rates of ASD. This legend is based upon a retracted and fraudulent paper authored by MrAndy Wakefield who alleged a connection between the MMR vaccine and autism. If you want to read all about Wakefield’s despicable deceit, you can read it herehere, and here, a series of articles published in the British Medical Journal, a respected peer-reviewed publication.

Despite the fact that the CDC is unsure of why there is an increase (speculating on how we gather data rather than an environmental cause), despite the fact that Andy Wakefield lied, the antivaccination cult cannot help themselves in creating conspiracies or outlandish claims that vaccines cause autism.

One antivaccination lunatic, Ginger Taylor in her antiscientific website, “Adventures in Autism”, who appears to lack any formal education in science and has no critical thinking skills, cherry-picked 80 (give or take) studies that seem to support the hypothesis that vaccines cause autism. Except, of the 80, at least 20-25 do not make the conclusion that the author wants us to believe. Either the researchers are talking about a whole different topic, or the data was so weak that there’s barely a statistical difference in the autism and non-autism groups.

Ginger is pandering to her uneducated acolytes who don’t actually know how to read scientific articles. Lucky for humanity and the health of children who won’t have to suffer from vaccine preventable diseases, some of us know how to read and refute Ginger’s list of bogus studies.

What’s particularly laughable is that she uses numerous citations from Lucija Tomljenovic and Christopher Shaw, both of whom could be generously described as real shills for the antivaccination movement. Very well paid shills in fact. There articles are based on ludicrous science, published in terrible open access, and some cases, cursory (or even non-existent) peer-reviewed journals. If these two antivaccine shills actually had real data, why isn’t it published in top notch journals that relish the publicity of cutting-edge science. Like Lancet. Or New England Journal of Medicine. I guess if you have bogus data published in bad journals, you get what you get. Right Ginger Taylor?

The real science

By cherry picking a handful of poorly designed articles in poor journals, the antivaccine cult tends to find anything that supports their a priori conclusion that vaccines are horrific and they cause autism.

Proper scientifically skeptical thinking says that you review all evidence,  giving weight to the quality and quantity of evidence that supports one conclusion or another. These vaccine deniers ignore the vast weight of evidence of real science published in real journals.

Real science shows that not only do we lack evidence that vaccines cause autism, we have affirmative evidence that vaccines do not cause autism.

Below is a list of over 100 peer reviewed articles, published in the best This isn’t a list of every article published over the past 20 years that rejects the hypothesis that vaccines or its ingredients are linked to autism. There are probably 1000 more than reject the belief that vaccines cause autism.

The myth that vaccines cause autism is dead dead dead.

However, I’m not a fool. The zombie vaccine myths continue to rise from the dead.

Editor’s note: This article was originally published in April 2014. It has been completely revised and updated to include more comprehensive information, to improve readability and to add current research.

Key citations

Here’s a list 115 peer-reviewed articles, published in high impact factor journals, that document the lack of correlation (and therefore causation) between vaccines and autism.

  1. Abu Kuwaik G, Roberts W, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Smith IM, Szatmari P, Modi BM, Tanel N, Brian J. Immunization uptake in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2014 Feb;18(2):148-55. doi: 10.1177/1362361312459111. Epub 2012 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 23045216.
  2. Albizzati A, Morè L, Di Candia D, Saccani M, Lenti C. Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders. Minerva Pediatr. 2012 Feb;64(1):27-31. PubMed PMID: 22350041.
  3. Afzal MA, Ozoemena LC, O’Hare A, Kidger KA, Bentley ML, Minor PD. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK. J Med Virol. 2006 May;78(5):623-30. PubMed PMID: 16555271.
  4. Ahearn WH. What Every Behavior Analyst Should Know About the “MMR Causes Autism” Hypothesis. Behav Anal Pract. 2010 Spring;3(1):46-50. PubMed PMID: 22479671; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3004684.
  5. Allan GM, Ivers N. The autism-vaccine story: fiction and deception? Can Fam Physician. 2010 Oct;56(10):1013. PubMed PMID: 20944043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2954080.
  6. Andrews N, Miller E, Grant A, Stowe J, Osborne V, Taylor B. Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):584-91. PubMed PMID: 15342825.
  7. Andrews N, Miller E, Taylor B, Lingam R, Simmons A, Stowe J, Waight P. Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):493-4. PubMed PMID: 12456546; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1755823.
  8. Baird G, Pickles A, Simonoff E, Charman T, Sullivan P, Chandler S, Loucas T, Meldrum D, Afzal M, Thomas B, Jin L, Brown D. Measles vaccination and antibody response in autism spectrum disorders. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Oct;93(10):832-7. doi: 10.1136/adc.2007.122937. Epub 2008 Feb 5. Erratum in: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Dec;93(12):1079. PubMed PMID: 18252754.
  9. Berger BE, Navar-Boggan AM, Omer SB. Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination–United States, 2001-2010. BMC Public Health. 2011 May 19;11:340. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-340. PubMed PMID: 21592401; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3123590.
  10. Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2002 Aug 24;325(7361):419-21. PubMed PMID: 12193358; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC119436.
  11. Black SB, Cimino CO, Hansen J, Lewis E, Ray P, Corsaro B, Graepel J, Laufer D. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella, varicella and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered concurrently with a fourth dose of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared with the vaccines administered without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Apr;25(4):306-11. PubMed PMID: 16567981.
  12. Bower H. New research demolishes link between MMR vaccine and autism. BMJ. 1999 Jun 19;318(7199):1643. PubMed PMID: 10373156; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1116011.
  13. Chen W, Landau S, Sham P, Fombonne E. No evidence for links between autism, MMR and measles virus. Psychol Med. 2004 Apr;34(3):543-53. PubMed PMID: 15259839.
  14. Christie B. Scottish expert group finds no link between MMR and autism. BMJ. 2002 May 11;324(7346):1118. PubMed PMID: 12008724; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1172158.
  15. Clements CJ, McIntyre PB. When science is not enough – a risk/benefit profile of thiomersal-containing vaccines. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):17-29. Review. PubMed PMID: 16370953.
  16. Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines, Institute of Medicine; Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, editors. Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011 Aug 25.PubMed PMID: 24624471.
  17. Dales L, Hammer SJ, Smith NJ. Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California. JAMA. 2001 Mar 7;285(9):1183-5. PubMed PMID: 11231748.
  18. de Los Reyes EC. Autism and immunizations: separating fact from fiction. Arch Neurol. 2010 Apr;67(4):490-2. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.57. PubMed PMID: 20385917.
  19. DeWilde S, Carey IM, Richards N, Hilton SR, Cook DG. Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination? Br J Gen Pract. 2001 Mar;51(464):226-7. PubMed PMID: 11255906; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1313956.
  20. Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;2:CD004407. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 22336803.
  21. DeStefano F, Bhasin TK, Thompson WW, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle C. Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan atlanta. Pediatrics. 2004 Feb;113(2):259-66. PubMed PMID: 14754936.
  22. DeStefano F. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;82(6):756-9. Epub 2007 Oct 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 17928818.
  23. DeStefano F. MMR vaccine and autism: a review of the evidence for a causal association. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S51-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 12142951.
  24. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: No epidemiological evidence for a causal association. J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):125-6. PubMed PMID: 10681219.
  25. DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatr. 2013 Aug;163(2):561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.02.001. Epub 2013 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 23545349.
  26. DeStefano F, Thompson WW. MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Feb;3(1):19-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 14761240.
  27. DeStefano F, Thompson WW. MMR vaccination and autism: is there a link? Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2002 Jul;1(2):115-20. Review. PubMed PMID: 12904145.
  28. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Negative association between MMR and autism. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):1987-8. PubMed PMID: 10376608.
  29. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: controversy laid to rest? CNS Drugs. 2001;15(11):831-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 11700148.
  30. D’Souza J, Todd T. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism or inflammatory bowel disease: the controversy should end. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jul;8(3):187-99. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-8.3.187. PubMed PMID: 23118678; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3469143.
  31. D’Souza Y, Fombonne E, Ward BJ. No evidence of persisting measles virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1664-75. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2006 Dec;118(6):2608. PubMed PMID: 17015560.
  32. Doja A, Roberts W. Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature. Can J Neurol Sci. 2006 Nov;33(4):341-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 17168158.
  33. Elliman D, Bedford H. MMR: where are we now? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Dec;92(12):1055-7. Epub 2007 Jul 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 17626143; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2066086.
  34. Farrington CP, Miller E, Taylor B. MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association. Vaccine. 2001 Jun 14;19(27):3632-5. PubMed PMID: 11395196.
  35. Fitzpatrick M. The end of the road for the campaign against MMR. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Aug;57(541):679. PubMed PMID: 17688775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2099687.
  36. Fombonne E, Chakrabarti S. No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella-induced autism. Pediatrics. 2001 Oct;108(4):E58. PubMed PMID: 11581466.
  37. Fombonne E, Zakarian R, Bennett A, Meng L, McLean-Heywood D. Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics. 2006 Jul;118(1):e139-50. PubMed PMID: 16818529.
  38. García-Fernández L, Hernández AV, Suárez Moreno V, Fiestas F. [Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism]. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2013 Apr;30(2):268-74. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 23949514.
  39. Gentile I, Bravaccio C, Bonavolta R, Zappulo E, Scarica S, Riccio MP, Settimi A, Portella G, Pascotto A, Borgia G. Response to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in children with autism spectrum disorders. In Vivo. 2013 May-Jun;27(3):377-82. PubMed PMID: 23606694.
  40. Gerber JS, Offit PA. Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 15;48(4):456-61. doi: 10.1086/596476. Review. PubMed PMID: 19128068; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2908388.
  41. Glasper EA. New evidence reaffirms the safety of the MMR vaccine. Br J Nurs. 2002 Jun 27-Jul 10;11(12):794. PubMed PMID: 12131827.
  42. Halsey NA, Hyman SL; Conference Writing Panel. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):E84. Review. PubMed PMID: 11331734.
  43. Hayney MS. Vaccine safety: no link between thimerosal and autism. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):725-6. PubMed PMID: 15637857.
  44. Hertz-Picciotto I, Green PG, Delwiche L, Hansen R, Walker C, Pessah IN. Blood mercury concentrations in CHARGE Study children with and without autism. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jan;118(1):161-6. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900736. PubMed PMID: 20056569; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2831962.
  45. Hensley E, Briars L. Closer look at autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Nov-Dec;50(6):736-41. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.10004. Review. PubMed PMID: 21071320.
  46. Heron J, Golding J; ALSPAC Study Team. Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):577-83. PubMed PMID: 15342824.
  47. Hessel L. [Mercury in vaccines]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2003;187(8):1501-10. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 15146581.
  48. Honda H, Shimizu Y, Rutter M. No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;46(6):572-9. PubMed PMID: 15877763.
  49. Hornig M, Briese T, Buie T, Bauman ML, Lauwers G, Siemetzki U, Hummel K, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, O’Leary JJ, Sheils O, Alden E, Pickering L, Lipkin WI. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study. PLoS One. 2008 Sep 4;3(9):e3140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003140. PubMed PMID: 18769550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2526159.
  50. Hurley AM, Tadrous M, Miller ES. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiologic studies. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jul;15(3):173-81. PubMed PMID: 22477809; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3018252.
  51. Hviid A, Stellfeld M, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M. Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1763-6. PubMed PMID: 14519711.
  52. Institute of Medicine (US) Immunization Safety Review Committee. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004.PubMed PMID: 20669467.
  53. Iqbal S, Barile JP, Thompson WW, DeStefano F. Number of antigens in early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age 7-10 years. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Dec;22(12):1263-70. doi: 10.1002/pds.3482. Epub 2013 Jul 12. PubMed PMID: 23847024.
  54. Jain A, Marshall J, Buikema A, Bancroft T, Kelly JP, Newschaffer CJ. Autism Occurrence by MMR Vaccine Status Among US Children With Older Siblings With and Without Autism. JAMA. 2015 Apr 21;313(15):1534-1540. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.3077. PubMed PMID: 25898051.
  55. Jefferson T, Rudin M, Di Pietrantonj C. Adverse events after immunisation with aluminium-containing DTP vaccines: systematic review of the evidence. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Feb;4(2):84-90. Review. PubMed PMID: 14871632.
  56. Jefferson T, Price D, Demicheli V, Bianco E; European Research Program for Improved Vaccine Safety Surveillance (EUSAFEVAC) Project. Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):3954-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 12922131.
  57. Jick H, Kaye JA. Epidemiology and possible causes of autism. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Dec;23(12):1524-30. Erratum in: Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(4):following table of contents. PubMed PMID: 14695031.
  58. Kaye JA, del Mar Melero-Montes M, Jick H. Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. BMJ. 2001 Feb 24;322(7284):460-3. PubMed PMID: 11222420; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC26561.
  59. King BH. Promising Forecast for Autism Spectrum Disorders. JAMA. 2015 Apr 21;313(15):1518-1519. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.2628. PubMed PMID: 25898047.
  60. Klein KC, Diehl EB. Relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Jul-Aug;38(7-8):1297-300. Epub 2004 Jun 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 15173555.
  61. Lazoff T, Zhong L, Piperni T, Fombonne E. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders among children at the English Montreal School Board. Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;55(11):715-20. PubMed PMID: 21070699.
  62. Lingam R, Simmons A, Andrews N, Miller E, Stowe J, Taylor B. Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a north east London population. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Aug;88(8):666-70. PubMed PMID: 12876158; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1719604.
  63. Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Olsen J, Melbye M. A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 7;347(19):1477-82. PubMed PMID: 12421889.
  64. Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Olsen J, Melbye M. [MMR vaccination and autism–a population-based follow-up study]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Dec 2;164(49):5741-4. Danish. PubMed PMID: 12523209.
  65. Madsen KM, Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Thorsen P, Plesner AM, Andersen PH, Mortensen PB. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data. Pediatrics. 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):604-6. PubMed PMID: 12949291.
  66. Madsen KM, Vestergaard M. MMR vaccination and autism : what is the evidence for a causal association? Drug Saf. 2004;27(12):831-40. Review. PubMed PMID: 15366972.
  67. Mäkelä A, Nuorti JP, Peltola H. Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):957-63. PubMed PMID: 12415036.
  68. Maglione MA, Das L, Raaen L, Smith A, Chari R, Newberry S, Shanman R, Perry T, Goetz MB, Gidengil C. Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics; 2014 July 1 (published online). doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1079
  69. Marin M, Broder KR, Temte JL, Snider DE, Seward JF; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 May 7;59(RR-3):1-12. PubMed PMID: 20448530.
  70. Marwick C. US report finds no link between MMR and autism. BMJ. 2001 May 5;322(7294):1083. PubMed PMID: 11337432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1120232.
  71. Meadows M. IOM report: no link between vaccines and autism. FDA Consum. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):18-9. PubMed PMID: 15595144.
  72. Meilleur AA, Fombonne E. Regression of language and non-language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2009 Feb;53(2):115-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01134.x. Epub 2008 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 19054269.
  73. Miller E. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003 Jul;14(3):199-206. Review. PubMed PMID: 12913832.
  74. Miller E, Andrews N, Grant A, Stowe J, Taylor B. No evidence of an association between MMR vaccine and gait disturbance. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Mar;90(3):292-6. PubMed PMID: 15723921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1720314.
  75. Miller L, Reynolds J. Autism and vaccination-the current evidence. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2009 Jul;14(3):166-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2009.00194.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19614825.
  76. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A, Majewska R. Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 May;29(5):397-400. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c40a8a. PubMed PMID: 19952979.
  77. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A. [The relationship between MMR vaccination level and the number of new cases of autism in children].Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62(3):597-604. Polish. PubMed PMID: 19108524.
  78. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A, Majewska R. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2009;63(1):107-12. Polish. PubMed PMID: 19522237.
  79. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Majewska R, Kiełtyka A, Augustyniak M. [Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].Przegl Epidemiol. 2011;65(3):491-5. Polish. PubMed PMID: 22184954.
  80. Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I. The genetics of autism. Pediatrics. 2004 May;113(5):e472-86. Review. PubMed PMID: 15121991.
  81. Nelson KB, Bauman ML. Thimerosal and autism? Pediatrics. 2003 Mar;111(3):674-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 12612255.
  82. Offit PA. Thimerosal and vaccines–a cautionary tale. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1278-9. PubMed PMID: 17898096.
  83. Offit PA, Coffin SE. Communicating science to the public: MMR vaccine and autism. Vaccine. 2003 Dec 8;22(1):1-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 14604564.
  84. Patja A, Davidkin I, Kurki T, Kallio MJ, Valle M, Peltola H. Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Dec;19(12):1127-34. PubMed PMID: 11144371.
  85. Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):793-804. Review. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):200. PubMed PMID: 15342856.
  86. Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):793-804. Review. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):200. PubMed PMID: 15342856.
  87. Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, Treanor J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41. PubMed PMID: 12480426.
  88. Peltola H, Patja A, Leinikki P, Valle M, Davidkin I, Paunio M. No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study. Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1327-8. PubMed PMID: 9643797.
  89. Price CS, Thompson WW, Goodson B, Weintraub ES, Croen LA, Hinrichsen VL, Marcy M, Robertson A, Eriksen E, Lewis E, Bernal P, Shay D, Davis RL, DeStefano F. Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism.Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):656-64. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0309. Epub 2010 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 20837594.
  90. Roehr B. Study finds no association between autism and vaccination. BMJ. 2013 Apr 3;346:f2095. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2095. PubMed PMID: 23554072.
  91. Richler J, Luyster R, Risi S, Hsu WL, Dawson G, Bernier R, Dunn M, Hepburn S, Hyman SL, McMahon WM, Goudie-Nice J, Minshew N, Rogers S, Sigman M, Spence MA, Goldberg WA, Tager-Flusberg H, Volkmar FR, Lord C. Is there a ‘regressive phenotype’ of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Apr;36(3):299-316. PubMed PMID: 16729252.
  92. Rümke HC, Visser HK. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004 Feb 21;148(8):364-71. Review. Dutch. PubMed PMID: 15032089.
  93. Schechter R, Grether JK. Continuing increases in autism reported to California’s developmental services system: mercury in retrograde.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;65(1):19-24. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.1. PubMed PMID: 18180424.
  94. Schultz ST. Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):187-95. Review. PubMed PMID: 20628442.
  95. Shevell M, Fombonne E. Autism and MMR vaccination or thimerosal exposure: an urban legend? Can J Neurol Sci. 2006 Nov;33(4):339-40. PubMed PMID: 17168157.
  96. Smeeth L, Cook C, Fombonne E, Heavey L, Rodrigues LC, Smith PG, Hall AJ. MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study. Lancet. 2004 Sep 11-17;364(9438):963-9. PubMed PMID: 15364187.
  97. Smith MJ, Woods CR. On-time vaccine receipt in the first year does not adversely affect neuropsychological outcomes. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):1134-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2489. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20498176.
  98. Solt I, Bornstein J. [Childhood vaccines and autism–much ado about nothing?]. Harefuah. 2010 Apr;149(4):251-5, 260. Review. Hebrew. PubMed PMID: 20812501.
  99. Singh VK, Rivas WH. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines. J Biomed Sci. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):607-10. PubMed PMID: 15316135.
  100. Steffenburg S, Steffenburg U, Gillberg C. Autism spectrum disorders in children with active epilepsy and learning disability: comorbidity, pre- and perinatal background, and seizure characteristics. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003 Nov;45(11):724-30. PubMed PMID: 14580127.
  101. Stehr-Green P, Tull P, Stellfeld M, Mortenson PB, Simpson D. Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: lack of consistent evidence for an association. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Aug;25(2):101-6. PubMed PMID: 12880876.
  102. Takahashi H, Suzumura S, Shirakizawa F, Wada N, Tanaka-Taya K, Arai S, Okabe N, Ichikawa H, Sato T. An epidemiological study on Japanese autism concerning routine childhood immunization history. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun;56(3):114-7. PubMed PMID: 12944678.
  103. Taylor B, Lingam R, Simmons A, Stowe J, Miller E, Andrews N. Autism and MMR vaccination in North London; no causal relationship.Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S7-8. PubMed PMID: 12142932.
  104. Taylor B. Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism. Child Care Health Dev. 2006 Sep;32(5):511-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 16919130.
  105. Taylor B, Miller E, Farrington CP, Petropoulos MC, Favot-Mayaud I, Li J, Waight PA. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):2026-9. PubMed PMID: 10376617.
  106. Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 16;324(7334):393-6. PubMed PMID: 11850369; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC65532.
  107. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine. 2014 Jun 17;32(29):3623-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. Epub 2014 May 9. PubMed PMID: 24814559.
  108. Thjodleifsson B, Davídsdóttir K, Agnarsson U, Sigthórsson G, Kjeld M, Bjarnason I. Effect of Pentavac and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on the intestine. Gut. 2002 Dec;51(6):816-7. PubMed PMID: 12427783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1773472.
  109. Thompson WW, Price C, Goodson B, Shay DK, Benson P, Hinrichsen VL, Lewis E, Eriksen E, Ray P, Marcy SM, Dunn J, Jackson LA, Lieu TA, Black S, Stewart G, Weintraub ES, Davis RL, DeStefano F; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1281-92. PubMed PMID: 17898097.
  110. Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Inaba Y. MMR-vaccine and regression in autism spectrum disorders: negative results presented from Japan. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Feb;37(2):210-7. PubMed PMID: 16865547.
  111. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Aleksic B, Ozaki N. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia. Vaccine. 2012 Jun 13;30(28):4292-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.093. Epub 2012 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 22521285.
  112. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Aleksic B, Ozaki N. Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Vaccine. 2015 Jan 3. pii: S0264-410X(14)01689-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.036. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25562790.
  113. Verstraeten T, Davis RL, DeStefano F, Lieu TA, Rhodes PH, Black SB, Shinefield H, Chen RT; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a two-phased study of computerized health maintenance organization databases. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):1039-48. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2004 Jan;113(1):184. PubMed PMID: 14595043.
  114. Whitehouse AJ, Maybery M, Wray JA, Hickey M. No association between early gastrointestinal problems and autistic-like traits in the general population. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 May;53(5):457-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.03915.x. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 21418197.
  115. Weisser K, Bauer K, Volkers P, Keller-Stanislawski B. [Thiomersal and immunisations]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2004 Dec;47(12):1165-74. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 15583887.

Note: In almost every case in the list above, I’ve linked to the PubMed abstract, which often has limited information and lacks detailed analyses of methods, statistics and results. It is always preferred that you read the full article, but many of these publications sit behind expensive paywalls (I hate paywalls, they limit free access of scientific data). Students, especially in scientific fields and most academic physicians have access to the full article through their schools journal search engine. I have personal access to many, if not most, of the actual articles, and have read it in detail.

PubMed occasionally links to a “free” full version of the article. It can be found on buttons on the top right of the PubMed page, which say “Free Full Text” or something similar. These links may direct you to the actual journal, who graciously makes some articles free for the public, or to PubMed Central, a US National Institutes of Health library of full text medical and biological articles (although you can find the occasional article in other areas of science). I do not link, usually, to the free version of an article because it changes all the time, so I have found it better to go to PubMed. If there is a PubMed Central version of the article, you will see “PubMed Central PMCID:” in the standardized citation (which I always use for scientific journal articles). Using the PMC number, you can search for it through Google or the PMC website.

Also, many thanks to the brilliant folks at a pro-vaccine Facebook Page who put many hours into creating this list. I can’t link to the group or the individuals publicly, but they know who they are, and they made this blog post relatively easy. I’ve adapted the list to the scientific citation style that I prefer to use, and added a few additional articles that support the scientific consensus.

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  • BHill

    And of Merck and the fact that they killed 60,000 people with Vioxx, more than the Vietcong, and says we can trust our childrens lives to them, still!! None are wearing orange jumpsuits, as they rightfully should. Medical Malpractice is the 3rd leading killer in the USA.
    Thermerosol (Mercury laden neurotoxin), Aluminum, Aborted fetal tissue, Dog kidneys, Monkey kidneys dont cure anything. Let alone mainlining them. They LIE!!!!
    Spain is suing Baxter health for the killing of their daughters with HPV.
    The Father of so called ADHD is a Russian Israeli named Leon Eisenberg-who confessed later it was all fictitious (fictional), and yet 1 million active boys are made zombies because of it because they can’t sit still at a desk for 7 hours!
    Also, Research the Dr. Semmelweis effect.
    He was a doctor that found a correlation between doctors spreading disease by making rounds and not washing their hands. He was laughed at and mocked by his contemporaries.
    His friend admitted him to a mental hospital where he was killed 1 week later.

  • Albert K

    an analysis by Dr Jacob Puliyel is getting traction on anti-vax blogs/websites/FB and he has analysed GSK data and argued that child mortality is clustered around the time period 2 days following the hexavalent immunization, so could someone have a look at this and tell me the flaw in the analysis? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/jacob.puliyel.1/comments/

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  • TellItAsIs99

    Parents should not be coerced into injecting dangerous and controversial vaccines into their children by being prevented from enrolling their kids into tax payer funded schools. If SB277 passes there will be law suits against the State and school districts and that legal fight could go all the way to the Supreme Court.
    Some vaccines shots contain toxic mercury and many vaccines contain toxic adjuvants such as aluminum to stimulate immune reaction. Vaccine supporters also fail to mention that because of better sanitation, hygiene and hospital care that deaths from infectious diseases all but disappeared before the first vaccine was given in 1963. Supporters also do not mention that vaccines rates were well under 90%, the so called herd immunity minimum rate, in many parts of the country in the 1960s to 80s without any major outbreaks of diseases that the vaccines are claimed to protect against.
    Big pharma funded test trials and financing to politicians, the FDA and medical advisory committees have created just another marketing group. Vaccines are not guaranteed to be either safe or effective and vaccine companies are protected from law suits by the 1986 Vaccine Injury Act. They know their vaccines cause harm and even death but don’t know which children are at risk; see the HRSA vaccine injury table list.
    A well nourished child with a healthy immune system will fight off most infectious diseases and in the rare case of measles the child will have life-time immunity after recovery without taking the risk of toxic vaccines some of which require later booster shots. Vaccines are
    a decision that must remain with the parents.
    Big pharma interests have also lead to other controversial deadly treatments drugs. The highly deadly mandatory clot-buster TPA drug given in the ER for a non-life threatening moderate ischemic stroke has a history of deadly failed test trials and controversial if any benefit modest benefit. Search: AAEM TPA position, The NNT TPA stroke, or in ER emergency blogs or http://www.stroketreatmentrisktpa.co.nf for the stroke TPA drug controversy.

    • Bishop

      > “If SB277 passes there will be law suits …”

      BFD. Three families just tried every bullshit antivaxer argument to overturn New York’s mandatory school vaccination requirements, and lost. I don’t see the Ninth ruling any differently.

      +1 for getting a bingo in less than 350 words though. That’s pretty fucking impressive.

    • BHill

      The VAERS (co sponsored by CDC) statistics for 2014 were the highest ever with 38,519 MAIMED and 3,737 killed from vaccines All 18 years and younger. These numbers are going up every year. We don’t need an expert for that. We don’t even need a debate. To make this mandatory is criminal.
      It’s the same as playing Russian roulette with our children’s lives. People need to wake up, quit letting the government give itself authority it doesn’t have. Government officials are just people, if they think it’s ok to kill and maim 38,000 kids a year, I think they belong in prison. This whole thing is a criminal fraud. People should be like a mother/papa bear when someone is attacking it’s cubs. There are other bills following this one to mandate vaccines for adults.

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  • http://bewitchingkitchen.com SallyBR

    I am a subscriber of your blog and love it! I am a scientist by profession and food blogger by hobby… sometimes I write about scientific-related issues on my blog. I just published an article about the anti-vaccination movement, and thought that maybe you would enjoy reading… hope it’s ok to include a link, if not, slap my hand and delete my comment! :0))) http://bewitchingkitchen.com/2015/03/28/venting-on-vaccines/

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  • CornPaul

    You ignore the unholy alliance between Big Pharma and the Medical community at your own peril and show that you are a novice researcher. Here are 22 MORE peer reviewed studies that show a direct correlation between vaccines and autism. You have not “debunked” a thing until you debunk them all. Cheers and have fun shilling.

    http://www.activistpost.com/2013/09/22-medical-studies-that-show-vaccines.html

    • Jameson

      Wow, I love how confident you are. Those sources are awful. When 60% of the sources you are citing come from Yahoo news articles, you know you’re delusional. Classic Novice Researcher claiming someone who linked over a 100 legitimate sources is a novice. Hahaha, what a goober.

      • CornPaul

        A study published in the journal Annals of Epidemiology
        A study published in the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
        A study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
        A study published in the Journal of Toxicology
        A study published in the Journal of Biomedical Sciences
        Study published in the Annals of Clinical Psychiatry
        A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
        A study published by the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
        A study published in the Journal of Child Neurology
        A study conducted by Massachusetts General Hospital
        A study conducted by the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Arkansa
        A study published in the Public Library of Science (PLOS)
        A study conducted by the University of Texas Health Science Center
        A study published in the International Journal of Toxicology
        A study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
        A study published by the US National Library of Medicine
        A study conducted by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
        A study conducted by The George Washington University School of Public Health
        A study published in the journal Cell Biology and Toxicology
        A study published by the journal Lab Medicine
        A study published in the journal Neurochemical Research

        —Tell me again how 60% are Yahoo news sources…???? That’s a LIE, but a very good shilling strategy…You hope people will read your comment and not bother to click on my link. ALL conducted, submitted and peer reviewed by experts. ALL the links and PDF of the journal entries are available in the link I provided.
        Nice try Shill…

        Here…take Another look..
        http://www.activistpost.com/2013/09/22-medical-studies-that-show-vaccines.html

        • http://www.skepticalraptor.com/skepticalraptorblog.php Skeptical Raptor

          I see no peer reviewed papers that I can read. So you’re either inventing stuff or too lazy to have read them yourself.

          Laughable.

          • CornPaul

            None are so blind as those who refuse to see.
            Good luck.

          • Jameson

            So in otherwords, you are unsure how to do research? See what you continue to link cites what your saying. Then if you go to the bottom, you’ll see where they got their sources from. Ahh. . . Yes Yahoo News. . . Yahoo News. . Look more Yahoo News. . College now educates you on how to do accurate research. It might help you!

          • CornPaul

            The bottom “sources” actually read like this:
            “All sources not listed below are listed throughout the article and highlighted. To view them, please click on them.”

            The “Yahoo” sources that you can’t get past are not Peer-Reviewed journals…I know this, but I am not trying to pass them off as such. The Yahoo sources are NYSE profiles of businesses the article mentioned.

            Please read the 22 PEER-Reviewed studies that find a corrolation between Vaccines and Autism here:
            http://www.activistpost.com/2013/09/22-medical-studies-that-show-vaccines.html

            Click the hyperlinked text next to the number of the study.
            #1 takes you to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058170

            That is not yahoo, but, good try. Shill confirmed.

          • Craig Payne

            Not one of your “peer reviewed” sources confirm a link. You obviously do not know how to read peer reviewed studies. Epic fail.

          • CornPaul
          • CornPaul

            Awww, Skeptical….your page went offline? Right when I gave evidence to prove that you’re a shill…..how nice.

            I say good! this webpage was lying to humanity, keep it offline.

        • Raphaël Khoury

          @cornpaul:disqus The thing you must understand is, science isn’t about a study showing this or that. It’s about all the studies, and about how they fit together. The second law of science publishing states states that for every study, there is an equal and opposite study. (joke but not really). You can find studies taking all kinds of crazy off the wall positions: I’ve seen studyes that **astrology** work. that homeopathy works etc.

          As layman, we really can’t interpret these studies. Who are the authors? Are they well regarded by their peers? What else have they published? How does the idea that xyz cause autism fit inside our understing of human biochemistry?
          Experts in the field have an intuitive answer to these questions. Layman on the internet, even intelligent dedicated laymen,, never will.

          • CornPaul

            Science is funding by those who would benefit from the findings. Ignore the unholy alliance between the medical field and big pharma at your own peril.

          • Raphaël Khoury

            The problem with this argument is that it’s still
            something you must actually prove. It’s not enough to just say: Big pharma is manufacturing
            the evidence, you need to show this is the case.

            I for one, have always been suspicious of big oil. There is a conspiracy theory
            making the round on the internet, that woman bought a car that ran 1000 miles
            per gallon. She was amazed, told all her friends and even wrote the cie to
            thank them. One day she woke and saw two men in suits remove something from
            under the hood. Since that day the car had normal mileage. Read about here:
            http://www.snopes.com/autos/business/carburetor.asp

            Now I’m very skeptical of car cies but I just don’t buy that story. The idea
            that adding a little thing to a car would multiple its mileage doesn’t make intuitive
            sense when you understand how a motor
            works, and the idea that you *could* get so much mileage per gallon
            doesn’t fit with the physics of the energy content of oil.

            The point is, not believing this story doesn’t make me a stooge for big oil.
            It’s the job of those pushing this theory to convince me it is true.

            This story is a lot like that of the
            anti-vaxxers. The difference is, a layman can understand enough about a motor
            to see why adding a device to the motor just can’t increase mileage that
            much. Immunology is more complex, so the conspiracy theory took hold.

    • Albert K

      I thought i’d look at the first study in CornPaul’s list of so-called ‘evidence’ of a link bw vax and autism.
      Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism. Annals of Epidemiology , Vol. 19, No. 9 ABSTRACTS (ACE), September 2009: 651-680,
      Surprise surprise … It’s a dodgy study if ever I saw one. First, it’s a study of 33 kids, of which 9 received the HepB vax. Then it uses parent self-report data. If you use a small data set and marry it to self-report data, you can get a ‘study’ to say anything you like. The verdict: The ‘biggie’ is not credible. Sorry, no cigar

    • Albert K

      and the 2nd one is also so weak that the authors themselves say “Clearly, we cannot draw definite conclusions regarding the link between Al adjuvants and autism based on an ecological study such as the present one and hence the validity of our results remains to be confirmed.” This is an admission that their results are invalid. No cigar.However apart from the foot shot, the biggest mistake the authors make is to assume correlation means causation. It doesn’t. If we graph ASD diagnoses against sales of organic produce, we find an absolute
      correlation, yet no one would try to claim organic food causes autism.

      • CornPaul

        Shill confirmed.

        Go get the shots….try and force me and we shall have war.

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