Sheep vaccine study – aluminum adjuvants alter their behavior

sheep vaccine study

Over the past 20 years or so, I’ve read a lot of vaccine research studies. Most, published in top journals by real scientists, are worthy of respect. And they provide powerful evidence that vaccines are safe and effective. Of course, there are a handful of studies that are pseudoscientific garbage. Or retracted. But today, I think I’ve seen it all – a Spanish animal research team published a sheep vaccine study that they claim shows that the aluminum adjuvants in the vaccine altered their behavior. And you just know that the anti-vaccine religion will jump all over it as “proof” that vaccines are dangerous. Yawn.

In case you missed it, yes, this is a sheep vaccine study.

To be fair, I have no idea whether these researchers are part of the anti-vaccine religion – it’s possible that they think they’ve found something, but they do rely upon some discredited anti-vaccine tropes and falsehoods as the premise of their studies. Moreover, this article furthers the false narrative about aluminum in vaccines. And we’ll keep seeing it repeated on anti-vaccine Twitter and Facebook posts because the anti-vaccine zealots have nothing else.

The sheep vaccine study by Javier Asìn et al., published in Pharmacological Research, investigated cognitive and behavioral changes in lambs that had received repeated vaccination with aluminum-containing vaccines.

Let’s take a critical look.

Sheep vaccine study results

I’m not going to spend much time with the results, because I find it very troubling that the author’s conclusions are based on a total study of 21 animals, seven in each group. I laugh at clinical trials in humans that don’t contain 1,000 or more patients or epidemiological studies that don’t include a sample population over 100,000. An animal study that includes 21 lambs ranks near at the bottom half of the hierarchy of biomedical research.

The researchers put those 21 sheep into three equal groups:

A. Control group

B. Adjuvant only group

C. Vaccine with adjuvant group

I will get to a criticism below, but based on the small experiment, the authors concluded that:

Animals in groups B and C exhibited behavioral changes: affiliative interactions were significantly reduced and aggressive interactions and stereotypies increased significantly. They also exhibited a significant increase in excitatory behavior and compulsive eating. In general, changes were more pronounced in the Vaccine group than they were in the Adjuvant-only group. Some changes were already significant in summer, after seven inoculations only. This study is the first to describe behavioral changes in sheep after having received repetitive injections of Al-containing products, explaining some of the clinical signs observed in ovine ASIA syndrome.

Aluminum in vaccines

For those of you who are unfamiliar with aluminum in vaccines, aluminum adjuvants are added to vaccines to stimulate the immune response to the vaccine’s antigen – however, they do not induce any immunity to anything by themselves.

Aluminum adjuvants have been used for over 70 years in vaccines without any evidence that they cause harm. Unfortunately, these adjuvants have only become an issue for the anti-vaccine world because they keep running out of real science to support their beliefs about the safety of vaccines.

There are a few key points to be made about aluminum adjuvants:

  1. The amount of aluminum in vaccines (and remember, only a few vaccines have aluminum) is measured in micrograms. The maximum allowable amount of aluminum in a vaccine is 125 µg.  Based on the recommended schedule of vaccines, the maximum amount of aluminum an infant could be exposed to over the first year of life would be 4225 µg (or 4.225 mg). Let’s put this into context – a newborn baby averages body burden of about 384 µg of aluminum. In addition, typical concentrations of aluminum in breast milk (10-49 µg/L), soy-based infant formula (460-930 µg/L), and milk-based infant formula (58-150 µg/L) mean that the dose of aluminum from these sources far exceed the dose of vaccines in just a few weeks. A baby also inhales several thousand micrograms of aluminum per day, unless they live in some bubble with ultra-pure air.
  2. As I constantly mention, the dose makes the poison. And these doses of environmental and vaccine aluminum are far below the minimum risk level for the body burden of aluminum.
  3. Only if you assume that the body cannot clear aluminum (usually only in the case of kidney failure), the cumulative dose of the metal doesn’t actually matter.
  4. There is a trope, pushed by the anti-vaccine world, that somehow injecting aluminum is much different than consuming or inhaling it. This is simply not based on any science known to the biomedical world. The kidneys filter out most of the aluminum salts way before it accumulates. Furthermore, inhaled and ingested aluminum occurs every single day unless your baby doesn’t eat or breathe, whereas the tiny dose of injected aluminum occurs infrequently.

There simply is no robust, peer-reviewed evidence that the amount of aluminum salts in vaccines are in any way harmful. But that never stops the anti-vaccine religion from making unfounded claims.

ASIA, not the continent

Asin et al. start out their paper by stating that autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) is an adverse reaction of vaccines. ASIA is a belief, pushed by Israeli immunologist Yehuda Shoenfeld, that certain autoimmune conditions are caused by aluminum adjuvants in vaccines.

However, ASIA has been thoroughly dismissed by most scientists and regulatory agencies. Numerous large case-control and cohort studies, both near the top of the hierarchy of biomedical research, have found no evidence of a relationship between vaccines, especially the HPV vaccine, and ASIA. For example, researchers looked at nearly 300,000 vaccinated and unvaccinated women (reviewed here) and found no link to ASIA. There are many more studies that show a similar lack of causal links.

Thus, before we even start critiquing this paper, the authors start with a bogus hypothesis that is unsupported by real scientific investigations. Unless, of course, you subscribe to anti-vaccine lies, memes, and tropes. Then you probably are a true believer.

Sheep vaccine study critique

Despite the fact that the paper has a couple of discredited claims, about aluminum and ASIA, there are other significant issues with the paper. Let’s review:

  1. The researchers only looked at a total of 21 sheep in 3 groups. Important clinical and epidemiological studies have thousands or even millions of data points. It is difficult, if not impossible, to determine a causal link with such a tiny sample size.
  2. The animals in the two experimental groups, one vaccinated with the typical vaccines given to sheep and the other with just aluminum adjuvant. The animals received 16 vaccine doses within 12 months for a total of 70.861 mg of aluminum. These are the number of doses that a sheep receive over 6-7 years! Furthermore, if you’re prone to comparing sheep to humans, that’s 20X more aluminum adjuvant than a human receives over a year – of course, human infants are smaller. Nevertheless, even though I dismiss any link between injected aluminum and neurological issues, giving 6-7 years of vaccines over 12 months biases the results. In addition, I’m skeptical of the behavioral observations, but it is possible that the serum aluminum levels are so high that it exceeds the safe limit for aluminum.
  3. The study was not randomized or blinded (or they failed to mention it in the methods section). You might think that randomization on matters with humans, but the researchers could have biased the results by the way they treated the sheep.
  4. This study relied upon subjective observations of the sheep’s “behavior” post-vaccination. These are the type of issues that hinder many behavioral and neurological studies – a subjective analysis of change in behavior is almost impossible to quantify. And when there are just 21 animals, it’s almost impossible.
  5. Sheep are social animals and the process of vaccination itself, especially so many over a short period of time, may induce behavioral changes irrespective of any contents of the vaccine, although the control group did receive a placebo injection.
  6. This sheep vaccine study is a primary research article – that means it lacks any supporting data anywhere else. It’s like the old vaccines cause autism canard – one retracted study supported it. On the other hand, literally hundreds of clinical and epidemiological studies along with meta-reviews have debunked that claimed link. That’s why most real biomedical researchers ignore primary animal studies – they pique interest, but rarely form the foundations of science-based medicine. Since we have dozens of studies that show no behavioral changes post vaccination, how much does a very small, very poorly designed sheep study tell us? Next to nothing.
  7. In a 2013 study by the same research group, they observed that around 0.5-1.0 % of animals of a flock exhibit the type of behavioral symptoms, irrespective of vaccination, described in the newer paper – yet they conveniently ignore it. Given the tiny sample size, the lack of randomization or blinding, and other issues, it’s impossible to tell if this is background noise.

I’m done here

The anti-vaccine religion has pounced on this study, which doesn’t surprise me or any other pro-science person out there. Dr. Bob Sears (the California pediatrician on probation for some issues about vaccine exemptions) and the crackpot science denier Robert F Kennedy Jr have tried to abuse this pathetic study to further their pro-disease for children beliefs.

This sheep vaccine study barely rises to the level of bad evidence – it provides us with nothing useful about the discussion regarding aluminum in vaccines. Moreover, there is overwhelming evidence, as shown in so many powerful peer-reviewed studies, that there simply is no link between aluminum adjuvants and anything.

Why do the anti-vaccine use this terrible sheep vaccine study to support their claims? Because they’ve got nothing else. Nada. Squat. Zilch.

Citations

Getting the adult HPV vaccine – Dorit Rubinstein Reiss’ story

adult-hpv-vaccine

On 5 October 2018, the FDA expanded the licensing Gardasil 9 – currently the only HPV vaccine marketed in the United States – to men and women up to the age of 45. If up till now getting the adult HPV vaccine was not a realistic option for me, now it was. But at this point, the vaccine is not yet recommended for my age group – the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has not made any additional recommendations after licensing. Which raised the question: should I get it?

On one hand, I am in a committed monogamous relationship. I am a married mother of two young children, I have no plans of changing partners, and I’ve already probably been exposed to anything my husband had. I have never had an abnormal pap smear. That means that I am likely pretty low risk for getting a new HPV infection and that I have cleared any I ever had (almost all sexually active people in the United States have had HPV). If you are in a relationship, including marriage, and if you had children, you likely had sex at some point.

So the benefits of the adult HPV vaccine for me are low – but not non-existent. You never know what will happen, and while I hope to stay with my partner forever, bad things can happen – like death or sexual assault. One hopes for the best, but it’s reasonable to also plan for the worst (for example, while we do not plan to die, we have a will written out with provisions for caring for our kids if we do) – and the vaccine is age-limited. There are nine cancer-causing HPV strains in the vaccine, and I am fairly certain that I have not been exposed to all of them. 

The risks of the adult HPV vaccine are extremely minor. I’m likely to get a sore arm, may get other mild reaction like fever, and have a theoretical reaction of an allergic reaction (or fainting, though not being a teen, I think that’s unlikely). Studies pretty much rule out other risks.

In spite of anti-vaccine claims, getting the vaccine after being exposed to HPV does not increase your risk of cancer (but the vaccine won’t protect you against strains you were already exposed to).

So the adult HPV vaccine has low benefits but minuscule risks, at least for me. Still, it seemed to me to make sense to go for it, if possible. Especially because I speak up about HPV vaccines and encourage others to go for them, I thought it’s fair to get them myself, too. Show I mean it when I say that they are safe. 

To be sure, I emailed Dr. Paul Offit, who I trust completely on vaccines. He recommended going for it. 

I did not know, however, if my provider will give me the vaccine or if my healthcare insurance will cover it at my age (most health insurance in the USA does cover all vaccines, including the HPV vaccine, for children). In spite of what anti-vaccine people believe, I do not have secret ties to pharma or special access to vaccines. 

So I emailed my doctor:

Dear Dr. X,

Since the FDA approved HPV vaccines for people up to 45, I would like to get the vaccine, if possible.

I emailed Dr. Paul Offit, a vaccine expert,  for his opinion, and he recommended getting it.

Can you help me do that?

Best,
Dorit.

My doctor said: “Sure, let me see what our protocol is here and get back to you.”

After I did not hear back for over a week, I emailed again. My doctor answered:

Sorry that I could not repond in a timely manner.
I had forwarded your request to Dr. Y [details omitted to preserve my providers’ – and my own – privacy] but did not hear from them. I have ordered the shots. You can call your … health plan to see if it will be covered just to be sure.

You can go to ### injection clinic Mon-Fri 9am-12pm, 1:30-4:30 pm for the shot (ordered already).

Okay. All that was left was to actually get the vaccine. I wanted a picture – so I asked my eight-year-old son if he will act as photographer and come with me. He agreed. We went together, waited, and went in. I told him to take a lot of pictures all through, and he did. 

Dorit adult HPV vaccine

The nurse asked if I was feeling okay, if I ever had a reaction to a vaccine, if I was allergic to latex or anything else I knew of (yes, no, no). She explained what the shot was, and gave me the Vaccine Information Statement. We also wrote out the schedule for the next two doses. Then she cleaned the area, told me to take a deep breath and let it out, and done. I barely felt the needle. 

She told me my arm will hurt for a day or two. It didn’t, actually. Not complaining. I’m okay with less pain. But I would have been okay (not happy, but okay) with a sore arm for a few days, too. 

My son did a great job taking a lot of pictures. I posted several of those pictures on Facebook and Twitter, because, again, I think it’s important to make it clear I stand behind what I say on HPV vaccines specifically, and vaccines generally. 

So that’s my adult HPV vaccine story. One dose down, two to go. Maybe my arm will hurt next time. 

Richard Pan wins re-election despite Robert F Kennedy Jr anti-vaccine ad

Richard Pan

For those living under a rock ( about which, I’d have to ask “why?”), the USA had its so-called mid-term elections, which are state and Federal elections that happen at the halfway point of the US President’s term. Unfortunately, instead of the blue wave, we got more of a blue ripple, where the Democrats barely won the House, with positive and negative results for Team Blue across the country. In California, there was one state Senate election that was interesting to many of us, the re-election of Richard Pan who is a staunch supporter of vaccines.

Dr. Pan is not only a pediatrician but also is a Democrat who represents the 6th Senate District, located in Sacramento, CA. For those you who don’t follow California politics, Dr. Pan was the prime sponsor of SB277, which eliminated the abused personal belief exemptions for vaccines. The law essentially mandated vaccines for children entering school, and it has greatly increased vaccine uptake for school-aged children in California.

SB277 still allowed for medical exemptions, which are exemptions that are medically necessary such as allergies or immune disorders. Unfortunately, the anti-vaccine crowd has abused this “loophole” by buying, in many cases, medical exemptions from unscrupulous individuals.

Dr. (or is it Senator) Richard Pan has been targeted by the anti-vaccine crowd many times for his support of mandatory vaccination. They have even resorted to vile and disgusting racist attacks against him. It has even reached a level of violent hate speech that seems to be common in US politics these days.

But Richard Pan has stood his ground on vaccine mandates, and he continues to be a strong proponent of children’s health issues. And that includes vaccines.

Just prior to the election, Robert F Kennedy Jr, a science-denying and anti-vaccine nutjob Democrat In Name Only, decided to attack Richard Pan in a very expensive advertisement which ran in the Sacramento area. RFK Jr has gone off the deep end lately, not only running this ad against a fellow liberal Democrat but also attacking the integrity and ethics of one of the most respected physicians in medical research. Kennedy subscribes to pseudoscience and false information about vaccines to further his agenda. And let’s not forget, he genuflected to Donald Trump in a lame attempt to create a vaccine safety commission.

Yeah, I think RFK Jr is a black mark on the Kennedy name.

Well, none of this nonsense mattered in the election. Richard Pan won his California State Senate seat 68-32% over an anti-vaccine independent, Eric Frame. Admittedly, Senate District 6 is overwhelmingly Democratic – Hillary Clinton won the district by about the same amount over Donald Trump in 2016.

Richard Pan wasn’t the only pro-vaccine candidate that mattered, but as a California citizen who thinks that protecting young children from vaccine-preventable diseases is a critical healthcare issue, I felt that the re-election of Dr. Pan was a great thing for the state.

Congratulations to Richard Pan. I hope he goes far in California politics (if we’re lucky, there may be a US Senate position open in California in 2020, hint hint).

And to Robert F Kennedy Jr. – you’re a science denier and traitor to progressive politics. You’re in bed with Republicans which include in their membership avowed science deniers and vaccine haters, Donald Trump and Rand Paul. Kindly remove your cranium from your colon. Please.

Of course, the anti-vaxxers are whining about Richard Pan and other pro-vaccine Democrats winning yesterday. I’m laughing. Although I wish the rest of Team Blue had done a bit better.

Children’s Health Defense anti-vaccine attack on Paul Offit – this again

Children's Health Defense

Maybe you don’t know much about Children’s Health Defense, but it’s a newer anti-vaccine group run by Robert F. Kennedy Jr., who has become one of the high priests of the anti-vaccine religion. RFK Jr., scion of the Kennedy family who dominated US politics for decades, has gone off the deep end of conspiracies from the assassinations of his father, Robert F. Kennedy,  and uncle, John F. Kennedy, to the discredited belief that vaccines cause autism.

Children’s Health Defense, as a proxy for RFK Jr.’s lunatic beliefs about vaccines, decided to utilize ad hominem attacks on Dr. Paul Offit as part of their offensive against vaccines. Why? Because the anti-vaccine crackpots lack any evidence of any of their claims, so the best they can do is attack people with childish name-calling and logical fallacies. If this wasn’t about saving children’s lives with safe and effective vaccines, I’d just laugh at these people. They are ridiculous members of a lunatic fringe.

Although I’m not going to waste your time tearing apart each absurd attack they make on Dr. Offit, I’ll tackle a few. For educational purposes only! Continue reading “Children’s Health Defense anti-vaccine attack on Paul Offit – this again”

Constitutionality of mandatory vaccinations – Robert F Kennedy Jr. is wrong

If you’re a regular reader of this blog or are just generally aware of current issues regarding vaccinations, you know that Governor Jerry Brown of California signed SB 277 into law. The law removes so-called “personal belief exemptions” for vaccinating children before they enter schools.

Personal belief exemptions were used (and frequently abused) by parents in California to exempt their children from vaccinations using religious beliefs (hardly any mainstream religion is opposed to vaccinations) or the “I don’t like vaccines” belief statement. So many California children were not fully vaccinated, especially when they were clustered in certain areas of the state, lead to several outbreaks of measles, whooping cough, and other infectious diseases.

Thus, the California Senate, led by Senator and Dr. Richard Pan, voted for SB 277, which sailed through the California Senate and Assembly, subsequently becoming law. Its sole purpose was to protect the children of California, the country’s most populous and wealthiest state, from ravages of diseases that were once on the verge of extinction.

Despite the overwhelming support from the legislature and citizens of the state, some groups remain steadfastly opposed. One trope being pushed is doubts about the constitutionality of mandatory vaccinations for children.

Even a group of lawyers wrote a letter to the California legislature, “Statement of Lawyers Opposed to California SB 277,” that tries to deny the constitutionality of mandatory vaccinations for children. The letter concludes:

…we strongly urge you to decline the temptation to tamper with California’s legislative scheme that works to achieve public health objectives while protecting the rights of individuals to make conscientious medical decisions regarding their own health.

Please take the responsible course by rejecting SB 277 and avoiding the legal, educational, and health decision-making chaos that would follow from enactment of this legislation.

The letter is signed by over 150 attorneys but appeared to be written by one Robert F. Kennedy, Jr, a famous attorney with a long history of playing “fast and loose” with the science regarding vaccines. Last month, this blog’s good friend, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss, who spends most of her time (as far as I can tell) writing about legal issues with vaccines, replied to Kennedy’s letter with real science, real constitutional law, and real facts.

Continue reading “Constitutionality of mandatory vaccinations – Robert F Kennedy Jr. is wrong”

Medical exemptions for vaccines after California SB277 – article review

medical exemptions

In 2015, California Governor Jerry Brown signed SB277 into law, which eliminated all personal belief exemptions, but still allowed valid medical exemptions, for vaccinations before children enter school. It was considered a public health triumph. Despite a multitude of lawsuits, the law has stood, while impressively increasing the vaccination rate in the state.

California state Sen. Richard J. Pan, M.D., M.P.H., FAAP, led a hard-fought legislative battle against vaccine opponents to pass the law. He had to put up with racist attacks and public confrontations during and after the battle to pass SB277.

Despite the public health importance of mandatory vaccines for children entering school, some California families are utilizing false or questionable medical claims to jump through loopholes to not vaccinate their children. I have been advocating, along with many others, that California needs to close these loopholes, possibly by having public health experts review all medical exemptions before school children are allowed to enter school. This isn’t to force vaccinations on children, but to protect all children from dangerous, sometimes deadly, vaccine-preventable diseases.

In a new study by Salini Mohanty et al., published in Pediatrics, the authors examined the experiences of public health officials and immunization staffs that addressed requests for medical exemptions under SB277. Continue reading “Medical exemptions for vaccines after California SB277 – article review”

Repeated flu vaccination may better protect children – article review

repeated flu vaccination

A recent peer-reviewed article by Huong Q. McLean et al., published in JAMA Network Open, showed that repeat flu vaccination does not reduce the subsequent season’s flu vaccine effectiveness in children, ages 2-17 years. In fact, the study may show that children who received the flu vaccine in the prior flu season may benefit from the same vaccine in the current season.

This research may help settle a concern among vaccine experts that previous year’s flu vaccination may reduce current-season flu vaccine effectiveness. A 2017 study from Canada showed that if flu strains used in two vaccines are the same (or very similar), the second season’s flu vaccine effectiveness may be diminished.

This lowered effectiveness in subsequent years is described as the “antigenic distance hypothesis” (ADH). It describes the possibility that vaccine effectiveness of the current vaccine is lowered when the difference, or antigenic distance, between the current vaccine and prior year vaccine, is small, but the actual difference between the vaccine strains and wild circulating strains is large.

For example, the recent issues with the H3N2 influenza A outbreak, where the available flu vaccines had lower effectiveness against the H3N2 strain. The H3N2 portion of the 2017-18 flu vaccine was the same as in the 2013-14 vaccine, but it no longer matched with the H3N2 flu in circulation. The H3N2 variant had “drifted” genetically. Continue reading “Repeated flu vaccination may better protect children – article review”

Low adult flu vaccine coverage leads to most influenza deaths since 1970s

adult flu vaccine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) just released reports that detailed adult flu vaccine coverage and the mortality rate from the flu virus. Neither is very reassuring.

According to the first report, only 37.1% of adults, 18 or older, received the adult flu vaccine during the 2017-18 flu season. This was a drop of 6.2 percentage points from the 2016-17, and it was the lowest vaccination rate for adults since 2010-11.

In another report about the 2017-18 flu season, the CDC determine that more people were killed by seasonal influenza since the CDC first started tracking flu mortality in 1976-77 – the data shows a scary indictment of flu vaccine refusal. The CDC reported that:

  • 49 million people contracted the flu, which is roughly equivalent to the combined population of Texas and Florida.
  • 960,000 people were hospitalized. That is more than the estimated 895,000 hospital beds currently available in the USA (and one of the major reasons why I believe any major outbreak of vaccine-preventable diseases could be a disaster).
  • 79,000 people died of the influenza virus. The previous high, over the past 40 years of analyses, was 51,000 deaths in 2014-15.

The 2017-18 flu season was particularly harsh because it dominated by a the H3N2 subtype of the influenza A virus. This subtype mutates more frequently than other subtypes, so the 2017-18 seasonal adult flu vaccine was somewhat less effective than in previous seasons.

Although the anti-vaccine tropes wanted us to believe that the vaccine was worthless, it actually was about 25% effective against the H3N2 variant, with a much higher effectiveness for children. This may have contributed to the drop in adult flu vaccine coverage last year, which probably contributed to the severity of last season’s flu burden.

We don’t know what the 2018-19 flu vaccine effectiveness is, but there is a concern about the current production methods for the H3N2 virus may need to be revised to substantially improve effectiveness. That being said, given the mortality rate of the flu, even a 25-30% effectiveness substantially reduces your risk of severe flu complications.

Here are a few points about the flu and adult flu vaccine that bear repeating:

  • If you are a healthcare worker and refuse the flu vaccine, you are an epic dumbass. Protecting patients from your infectious diseases is paramount, and pseudoscientific beliefs about medicines, like vaccines, are a good reason to find another career path.
  • If you think that the adult flu vaccine causes the flu, you’d be wrong.
  • If you think that the flu is a minor disease, maybe you should read this article again. Almost 1 million people were hospitalized in 2017-18, which means expensive hospital bills, lost work productivity, and other issues. And, 79,000 people died.
  • If you conflate a common cold with the flu, you need stop. Although they have some overlapping symptoms, colds rarely have serious complications, while the flu is much worse.
  • If you think that old people and babies are the only ones at risk from flu complications, you ignore the fact that nearly 1,000 people, 18-49, died of the flu last year. Yes, most of the deaths were among young children and seniors, but think of it another way – getting the flu vaccine may help reduce the risk of passing along the flu to grandma or your little niece.
  • If you believe in any of the other tropes and myths about the flu vaccine, stop now. They are all wrong.
  • If you believe you are allergic to eggs and can’t get the adult flu vaccine, that’s not true any more.
  • If you think that supplements will protect you against the flu, you’d be wrong.
  • If you believe that the adult flu vaccine is useless, once again, you’re reading garbage on the internet. The current flu vaccines protect against three or four strains of the flu. The trivalent vaccine protects against the H1N1 influenza A virus, H3N2, and one strain of influenza B. The quadrivalent version protects against those plus another strain of influenza B. The major issue with effectiveness is against only the H3N2 strain, and even there, the effectiveness exceeds 25%. Against all flu strains, the quadrivalent adult flu vaccine was around 40%. It’s not perfect, but only if you fall for the Nirvana fallacy does it mean it’s worthless.

Too many Americans refuse to get the adult flu vaccine out of ignorance, laziness, or some other nonsensical reason. But despite the irrational claims of too many vaccine deniers, the flu is a dangerous, deadly disease.

Get the flu vaccine.



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Gardasil facts – debunking myths about HPV vaccine safety and efficacy

Gardasil safety and efficacy

The HPV cancer-preventing vaccine, especially Gardasil (or Silgard, depending on market), has been targeted by the anti-vaccine religion more than just about any other vaccine being used these days. So many people tell me that they give their children all the vaccines, but refuse to give them the HPV vaccine based on rumor and innuendo on the internet. This article provides all the posts I’ve written about Gardasil safety and efficacy.

As many regular readers know, I focus on just a few topics in medicine, with my two favorites being vaccines and cancer – of course, the Gardasil cancer-preventing vaccine combines my two favorite topics. Here’s one thing that has become clear to me – there are no magical cancer prevention schemes. You are not going to prevent any of the 200 different cancers by drinking a banana-kale-quinoa smoothie every day. The best ways to prevent cancer are to quit smoking, stay out of the sun, keep active and thin, get your cancer-preventing vaccines, and following just a few more recommendations.

The benefits of the vaccine are often overlooked as a result of two possible factors – first, there’s a disconnect between personal activities today and cancer that could be diagnosed 20-30 years from now; and second, people think that there are significant dangers from the vaccine which are promulgated by the anti-vaccine religion.

It’s frustrating and difficult to explain Gardasil safety and efficacy as a result of the myths about safety and long-term efficacy of the vaccine. That’s why I have written nearly 200 articles about Gardasil safety and efficacy, along with debunking some ridiculous myths about the cancer-preventing vaccine. This article serves to be a quick source with links to most of those 200 articles.

And if you read nothing else in this review of Gardasil, read the section entitled “Gardasil safety and effectiveness – a quick primer” – that will link you to two quick to read articles that summarize the best evidence in support of the vaccine’s safety and effectiveness.

Continue reading “Gardasil facts – debunking myths about HPV vaccine safety and efficacy”

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss – an index of her vaccine articles on this website

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss – Professor of Law at the University of California Hastings College of the Law (San Francisco, CA) – is a frequent contributor to this and many other blogs, providing in-depth, and intellectually stimulating, articles about vaccines (generally, but sometimes moving to other areas of medicine), social policy and the law. Her articles usually unwind the complexities of legal issues with vaccinations and legal policies, such as mandatory vaccination and exemptions, with facts and citations.

Professor Reiss writes extensively in law journals about the social and legal policies of vaccination–she really is a well-published expert in this area of vaccine policy, and doesn’t stand on the pulpit with a veneer of Argument from Authority, but is actually an authority. Additionally, Reiss is also a member of the Parent Advisory Board of Voices for Vaccines, a parent-led organization that supports and advocates for on-time vaccination and the reduction of vaccine-preventable disease.

She was also one of the many contributors to the book, “Pseudoscience – The Conspiracy Against Science.”

Many bloggers and commenters on vaccine issues will link to one or more of her articles here as a primary source to counter an anti-vaccine claim. The purpose of this post is to give you a quick reference to find the right article to answer a question you might have.

Below is a list of articles that Dorit Rubinstein Reiss has written for this blog, organized into some arbitrary and somewhat broad categories for easy reference. This article will be updated as new articles from Professor Reiss are published here. We also may update and add categories as necessary.


Continue reading “Dorit Rubinstein Reiss – an index of her vaccine articles on this website”