Skip to content
Home » Vaccines do NOT cause autism — RFK Jr should read this

Vaccines do NOT cause autism — RFK Jr should read this

Last updated on July 17th, 2023 at 02:32 pm

A few months ago, I published an article, similar to this one, that describes the vast breadth and depth of science that conclusively proves that vaccines do not cause autism. After I shared the article on Twitter, several well-meaning individuals said, “This is old news, no one is talking about vaccines and autism anymore.”

And they would be wrong. Robert F Kennedy Jr (RFK Jr) and Steve Kirsch, well-known anti-vaccine pseudoscientists, have resurrected this trope/meme/myth once again by claiming that vaccines do cause autism. And it requires me to bring back the breadth and depth of scientific evidence that overwhelmingly shows that vaccines do not cause or are even correlated with autism.

Let me be absolutely clear before you read any more of this article – the fact that vaccines do not cause autism is settled science. And as opposed to what Kirsch and RFK Jr claim, there is no high-quality, peer-reviewed, and published evidence that shows a link between vaccines and autism. In this article, I list over 160 studies that clearly show there is no link.

As I keep telling anti-vaccine activists if they want to “unsettle” the science, and show us actual scientific and medical evidence that vaccines cause autism, bring it to us. But they can’t. Anti-vaxxers like RFK Jr and Steve Kirsch lack any scientific background that would allow them to do real research which would lead to them “unsettling” the science. They cannot because they are not credible sources of information on vaccine science.

And it’s laughable that they want to have a “debate” about vaccines since they will try to claim in this fake debate that vaccines cause autism while ignoring all of the evidence that contradicts their claims. That’s why most pro-vaxxers won’t engage in a debate, because it would be just a spectacle where the anti-vaxxers will use the Gish gallop, anecdotes, VAERS dumpster-diving, misinformation, and logical fallacies to claim that they are victorious while ignoring the vast body of evidence that “proves” that vaccines are safe and effective.

That being said, this article will list out the reasons why the “vaccines cause autism” trope is still being pushed by Kirsch and RFK Jr, what the best evidence says about vaccines and autism, and finally, what are all of the published articles that conclusively show that vaccines do NOT cause autism.

girl wearing knitted sweater standing outside with leaves falling vaccines do not cause autism
Photo by JoEllen Moths on

Why does the “vaccines cause autism” claim still live?

Let’s start right at the beginning of the whole “vaccines cause autism” trope. And that would be MrAndrew Wakefield who published his fraudulent study on vaccines and autism, a paper that was subsequently retracted. It actually did not show a link between the MMR vaccine and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the anti-vaccine crowd has embraced it as if it were a scientific fact. 

Over the over 20 years since the retracted paper was first published, Mr. Andy Wakefield, fraud extraordinaire, has continued to propagate the myth about vaccines and autism. But in case it is not clear, nothing in Wakefield’s original paper has any credibility, that’s why it was retracted. Moreover, Wakefield has provided no evidence whatsoever to support his claims.

If you want to read all about Wakefield’s despicable deceit (and unethical study design), you can read it herehere, and here, a series of articles written by award-winning journalist Brian Deer and published in the British Medical Journal (now known as BMJ), a respected peer-reviewed publication. Mr. Deer has even written a book detailing his investigation of Wakefield and his fraudulent research called, “The Doctor Who Fooled the World: Science, Deception, and the War on Vaccines.”

Wakefield’s fraud and chicanery have spawned a cottage industry of other anti-vaxxers who double down on the claim that vaccines cause autism. Thus, someone who is sitting on the fence about vaccinating their children (or themselves, as adult vaccines are as important as the ones for children), hears all of the unsupported claims from the anti-vaccine crowd, then believes that there is a great scientific debate about whether vaccines cause autism.

Furthermore, part of the vaccines and autism myth claims that there is mercury in vaccines so that must damage the brain. I addressed this a while ago — vaccines never contained “mercury,” but vaccines used to include an anti-bacterial agent called thimerosal (or thiomersal for those in non-American countries). Thimerosal is ethyl mercury, not elemental mercury. It does not dissociate into mercury to poison our children.

Not to teach every chemistry in a few sentences, but let’s look at table salt, which is made up of one part sodium and one part chlorine. Sodium (Na) is a highly volatile metal that actually explodes when put in contact with water. Chlorine (Cl) is a poisonous gas that used to be used in warfare. Obviously, when you eat salt you neither explode nor die of poisonous gas, because NaCl (salt) is a different compound. The same is true of ethyl mercury which is a completely different compound.

Nevertheless, thimerosal has not been used in vaccines for over 20 years, except for multi-use vials of flu vaccine. And children and most adults do not receive that vaccine.

So, there isn’t a great debate about whether vaccines cause autism. The anti-vaxxers use rhetoric and logical fallacies to push this claim without ANY scientific support. That’s not a debate, that’s one side, the anti-vaxxers, making claims without evidence and contrary to the vast body of published evidence while the other side, the scientists and physicians who support vaccines, has ALL of the evidence that clearly shows that vaccines do NOT cause autism.

The anti-vaxxers only have fear, uncertainty, and doubt to push their pro-disease agenda. That’s it. Nothing more, nothing less.

Vaccines do not cause autism!

vaccines do not cause autism
Photo by CDC on Unsplash

Science shows that vaccines do not cause autism

By cherry-picking a handful of poorly designed articles in poor journals, the anti-vaccine activists tend to find anything that supports the a priori conclusion that vaccines are horrific and they cause autism.

Proper scientifically skeptical thinking says that you review all evidence, giving more weight to the quality and quantity of evidence – then you follow that higher quality and quantity of evidence to a conclusion.

These vaccine deniers ignore the vast weight of evidence of real science published in real journals. They search for the “evidence” that supports their preconceived conclusions.

Real science shows that not only do we lack evidence that vaccines cause autism, but we also have affirmative evidence that vaccines do not cause autism.

One example, published in the journal Vaccine, is a meta-analysis of five cohort studies that included 1,256,407 children and five case-control studies involving 9920 children. As I’ve written before, meta-analyses are the basis, the deepest foundation, of the scientific consensus, and they are the highest quality scientific evidence available. This study is like a gigantic clinical trial because it rolls up the highest quality data from those millions of subjects to develop solid conclusions.

The authors concluded that,

Findings of this meta-analysis suggest that vaccinations are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the components of the vaccines (thimerosal or mercury) or multiple vaccines (MMR) are not associated with the development of autism or autism spectrum disorder.

This was a powerful, large, and well-constructed meta-review. This study takes all of the evidence and data that had been developed previously and rolled it up into one huge cohort and clinical trial. And once again, we find that vaccines don’t cause autism.

Moreover, a 2019 large, powerful, robust cohort study, with nearly 600,000 subjects, provides nearly unimpeachable evidence that the MMR vaccine and autism are unrelated.

And there is another 2020 systematic review that included 87 studies and nearly 13 million children established that:

Existing evidence on the safety and effectiveness of MMR/MMRV vaccines support their use for mass immunisation. Campaigns aimed at global eradication should assess epidemiological and socioeconomic situations of the countries as well as the capacity to achieve high vaccination coverage. More evidence is needed to assess whether the protective effect of MMR/MMRV could wane with time since immunisation. 

And we actually know what might be the cause of autism – genetics. Two large, powerful studies show just how closely linked autism is to a large set of genes. Again, it has nothing to do with vaccines.  

The myth that vaccines and autism are linked has been debunked and debunked. The science is settled, despite the irrational claims of the pseudoscience world of anti-vaxxers. 

Vaccines and autism citations

Here is a list of 163 peer-reviewed articles, published in high-impact factor or specialized journals, that document the fact that vaccines do not cause autism. If I missed any key ones, please tap me on the shoulder and tell me.

  1. Abu Kuwaik G, Roberts W, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Smith IM, Szatmari P, Modi BM, Tanel N, Brian J. Immunization uptake in younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2014 Feb;18(2):148-55. doi: 10.1177/1362361312459111. Epub 2012 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 23045216.
  2. Albizzati A, Morè L, Di Candia D, Saccani M, Lenti C. Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders. Minerva Pediatr. 2012 Feb;64(1):27-31. PubMed PMID: 22350041.
  3. Afzal MA, Ozoemena LC, O’Hare A, Kidger KA, Bentley ML, Minor PD. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK. J Med Virol. 2006 May;78(5):623-30. PubMed PMID: 16555271.
  4. Ahearn WH. What Every Behavior Analyst Should Know About the “MMR Causes Autism” Hypothesis. Behav Anal Pract. 2010 Spring;3(1):46-50. PubMed PMID: 22479671; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3004684.
  5. Al-Haddad BJS, Oler E, Armistead B, Elsayed NA, Weinberger DR, Bernier R, Burd I, Kapur R, Jacobsson B, Wang C, Mysorekar I, Rajagopal L, Adams Waldorf KM. The fetal origins of mental illness. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Dec;221(6):549-562. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.06.013. Epub 2019 Jun 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 31207234; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6889013.
  6. Allan GM, Ivers N. The autism-vaccine story: fiction and deception? Can Fam Physician. 2010 Oct;56(10):1013. PubMed PMID: 20944043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2954080.
  7. Andrews N, Miller E, Grant A, Stowe J, Osborne V, Taylor B. Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):584-91. PubMed PMID: 15342825.
  8. Andrews N, Miller E, Taylor B, Lingam R, Simmons A, Stowe J, Waight P. Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):493-4. PubMed PMID: 12456546; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1755823.
  9. Aps LRMM, Piantola MAF, Pereira SA, Castro JT, Santos FAO, Ferreira LCS. Adverse events of vaccines and the consequences of non-vaccination: a critical review. Rev Saude Publica. 2018;52:40. doi: 10.11606/s1518-8787.2018052000384. Epub 2018 Apr 12. Review. Portuguese, English. PubMed PMID: 29668817; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5933943.
  10. Ashmawi NS, Hammoda MA. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Cureus. 2022 Mar 24;14(3):e23465. doi: 10.7759/cureus.23465. PMID: 35481307; PMCID: PMC9034898.
  11. Bai D, Yip BHK, Windham GC, Sourander A, Francis R, Yoffe R, Glasson E, Mahjani B, Suominen A, Leonard H, Gissler M, Buxbaum JD, Wong K, Schendel D, Kodesh A, Breshnahan M, Levine SZ, Parner ET, Hansen SN, Hultman C, Reichenberg A, Sandin S. Association of Genetic and Environmental Factors With Autism in a 5-Country Cohort. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 17;. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1411. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31314057.
  12. Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, Maenner MJ, Daniels J, Warren Z, Kurzius-Spencer M, Zahorodny W, Robinson Rosenberg C, White T, Durkin MS, Imm P, Nikolaou L, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Lee LC, Harrington R, Lopez M, Fitzgerald RT, Hewitt A, Pettygrove S, Constantino JN, Vehorn A, Shenouda J, Hall-Lande J, Van Naarden Braun K, Dowling NF. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018 Apr 27;67(6):1-23. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1. PubMed PMID: 29701730.
  13. Baird G, Pickles A, Simonoff E, Charman T, Sullivan P, Chandler S, Loucas T, Meldrum D, Afzal M, Thomas B, Jin L, Brown D. Measles vaccination and antibody response in autism spectrum disorders. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Oct;93(10):832-7. doi: 10.1136/adc.2007.122937. Epub 2008 Feb 5. Erratum in: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Dec;93(12):1079. PubMed PMID: 18252754.
  14. Becerra-Culqui TA, Getahun D, Chiu V, Sy LS, Tseng HF. Prenatal influenza vaccination or influenza infection and autism spectrum disorder in offspring. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Feb 17:ciac101. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac101. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35174388.
  15. Berger BE, Navar-Boggan AM, Omer SB. Congenital rubella syndrome and autism spectrum disorder prevented by rubella vaccination–United States, 2001-2010. BMC Public Health. 2011 May 19;11:340. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-340. PubMed PMID: 21592401; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3123590.
  16. Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2002 Aug 24;325(7361):419-21. PubMed PMID: 12193358; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC119436.
  17. Black SB, Cimino CO, Hansen J, Lewis E, Ray P, Corsaro B, Graepel J, Laufer D. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella, varicella and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered concurrently with a fourth dose of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared with the vaccines administered without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Apr;25(4):306-11. PubMed PMID: 16567981.
  18. Blake J, Hoyme HE, Crotwell PL. A brief history of autism, the autism/vaccine hypothesis and a review of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders. S D Med. 2013;Spec no:58-65. Review. PubMed PMID: 23444593.Blake J, Hoyme HE, Crotwell PL. A brief history of autism, the autism/vaccine hypothesis and a review of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders. S D Med. 2013;Spec no:58-65. Review. PubMed PMID: 23444593.
  19. Bower H. New research demolishes link between MMR vaccine and autism. BMJ. 1999 Jun 19;318(7199):1643. PubMed PMID: 10373156; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1116011.
  20. Campbell-Scherer D. Evidence from large Danish cohort does not support an association between the MMR vaccine and autism: facts in a post-truth world. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2019 Oct;24(5):198-199. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2019-111212. Epub 2019 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 31217233.
  21. Campisi L, Imran N, Nazeer A, Skokauskas N, Azeem MW. Autism spectrum disorder. Br Med Bull. 2018 Sep 1;127(1):91-100. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldy026. PubMed PMID: 30215678.
  22. Chang LV. Information, education, and health behaviors: Evidence from the MMR vaccine autism controversy. Health Econ. 2018 May 2. doi: 10.1002/hec.3645. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29717799.
  23. Chen W, Landau S, Sham P, Fombonne E. No evidence for links between autism, MMR and measles virus. Psychol Med. 2004 Apr;34(3):543-53. PubMed PMID: 15259839.
  24. Christie B. Scottish expert group finds no link between MMR and autism. BMJ. 2002 May 11;324(7346):1118. PubMed PMID: 12008724; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1172158.
  25. Clements CJ, McIntyre PB. When science is not enough – a risk/benefit profile of thiomersal-containing vaccines. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):17-29. Review. PubMed PMID: 16370953.
  26. Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines, Institute of Medicine; Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, editors. Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011 Aug 25.PubMed PMID: 24624471.
  27. Dales L, Hammer SJ, Smith NJ. Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California. JAMA. 2001 Mar 7;285(9):1183-5. PubMed PMID: 11231748.
  28. Davidson M. Vaccination as a cause of autism-myths and controversies. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2017 Dec;19(4):403-407. PubMed PMID: 29398935; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5789217.
  29. de Los Reyes EC. Autism and immunizations: separating fact from fiction. Arch Neurol. 2010 Apr;67(4):490-2. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.57. PubMed PMID: 20385917.
  30. DeWilde S, Carey IM, Richards N, Hilton SR, Cook DG. Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination? Br J Gen Pract. 2001 Mar;51(464):226-7. PubMed PMID: 11255906; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1313956.
  31. Demicheli V, Rivetti A, Debalini MG, Di Pietrantonj C. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;2:CD004407. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 22336803.
  32. DeStefano F, Shimabukuro TT. The MMR Vaccine and Autism. Annu Rev Virol2019 Apr 15;doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30986133.
  33. DeStefano F, Bodenstab HM, Offit PA. Principal Controversies in Vaccine Safety in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 12. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz135. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30753348.
  34. DeStefano F, Bhasin TK, Thompson WW, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle C. Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan atlanta. Pediatrics. 2004 Feb;113(2):259-66. PubMed PMID: 14754936.
  35. DeStefano F. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;82(6):756-9. Epub 2007 Oct 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 17928818.
  36. DeStefano F. MMR vaccine and autism: a review of the evidence for a causal association. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S51-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 12142951.
  37. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: No epidemiological evidence for a causal association. J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;136(1):125-6. PubMed PMID: 10681219.
  38. DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism. J Pediatr. 2013 Aug;163(2):561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.02.001. Epub 2013 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 23545349.
  39. DeStefano F, Thompson WW. MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Feb;3(1):19-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 14761240.
  40. DeStefano F, Thompson WW. MMR vaccination and autism: is there a link? Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2002 Jul;1(2):115-20. Review. PubMed PMID: 12904145.
  41. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Negative association between MMR and autism. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):1987-8. PubMed PMID: 10376608.
  42. DeStefano F, Chen RT. Autism and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: controversy laid to rest? CNS Drugs. 2001;15(11):831-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 11700148.
  43. Di Pasquale A, Bonanni P, Garçon N, Stanberry LR, El-Hodhod M, Tavares Da Silva F. Vaccine safety evaluation: Practical aspects in assessing benefits and risks. Vaccine. 2016 Nov 8. pii: S0264-410X(16)30974-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.10.039. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27836435.
  44. Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, Debalini MG, Demicheli V. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in childrenCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;4(4):CD004407. Published 2020 Apr 20. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub4
  45. D’Souza J, Todd T. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism or inflammatory bowel disease: the controversy should end. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jul;8(3):187-99. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-8.3.187. PubMed PMID: 23118678; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3469143.
  46. D’Souza Y, Fombonne E, Ward BJ. No evidence of persisting measles virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1664-75. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2006 Dec;118(6):2608. PubMed PMID: 17015560.
  47. Doja A, Roberts W. Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature. Can J Neurol Sci. 2006 Nov;33(4):341-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 17168158.
  48. El-Ansary A, Chirumbolo S, Bhat RS, Dadar M, Ibrahim EM, Bjørklund G. The Role of Lipidomics in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Mol Diagn Ther. 2019 Nov 5;. doi: 10.1007/s40291-019-00430-0. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 31691195.
  49. Elliman D, Bedford H. MMR: where are we now? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Dec;92(12):1055-7. Epub 2007 Jul 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 17626143; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2066086.
  50. Farrington CP, Miller E, Taylor B. MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association. Vaccine. 2001 Jun 14;19(27):3632-5. PubMed PMID: 11395196.
  51. Fitzpatrick M. The end of the road for the campaign against MMR. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Aug;57(541):679. PubMed PMID: 17688775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2099687.
  52. Fombonne E, Chakrabarti S. No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella-induced autism. Pediatrics. 2001 Oct;108(4):E58. PubMed PMID: 11581466.
  53. Fombonne E, Zakarian R, Bennett A, Meng L, McLean-Heywood D. Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics. 2006 Jul;118(1):e139-50. PubMed PMID: 16818529.
  54. Gabis LV, Attia OL, Goldman M, Barak N, Tefera P, Shefer S, Shaham M, Lerman-Sagie T. The myth of vaccination and autism spectrum. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2022 Jan;36:151-158. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.12.011. Epub 2021 Dec 22. PMID: 34996019; PMCID: PMC8694782.
  55. Gadad BS, Lia W, Yazdani U, Grady S, Johnson T, Hammond J, Gunn G, Curtis B, English C, Yutuc V, Ferrier C, Sackett GP, Marti N, Young K, Lewiston L, German DC. Administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines to infant rhesus macaques does not result in autism-like behavior or neuropathology. PNAS; Sept 2015. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1500968112.
  56. García-Fernández L, Hernández AV, Suárez Moreno V, Fiestas F. [Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism]. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2013 Apr;30(2):268-74. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 23949514.
  57. Gentile I, Bravaccio C, Bonavolta R, Zappulo E, Scarica S, Riccio MP, Settimi A, Portella G, Pascotto A, Borgia G. Response to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in children with autism spectrum disorders. In Vivo. 2013 May-Jun;27(3):377-82. PubMed PMID: 23606694.
  58. Geoghegan S, O’Callaghan KP, Offit PA. Vaccine Safety: Myths and Misinformation. Front Microbiol. 2020 Mar 17;11:372. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00372. PMID: 32256465; PMCID: PMC7090020.
  59. Gerber JS, Offit PA. Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 15;48(4):456-61. doi: 10.1086/596476. Review. PubMed PMID: 19128068; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2908388.
  60. Gidengil C, Goetz MB, Newberry S, Maglione M, Hall O, Larkin J, Motala A, Hempel S. Safety of vaccines used for routine immunization in the United States: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2021 Jun 23;39(28):3696-3716. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.079. Epub 2021 May 25. PMID: 34049735.
  61. Glasper EA. New evidence reaffirms the safety of the MMR vaccine. Br J Nurs. 2002 Jun 27-Jul 10;11(12):794. PubMed PMID: 12131827.
  62. Glickman G, Harrison E, Dobkins K. Vaccination Rates among Younger Siblings of Children with Autism. N Engl J Med. 2017 Sep 14;377(11):1099-1101. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1708223. PubMed PMID: 28902586.
  63. Goin-Kochel RP, Mire SS, Dempsey AG, Fein RH, Guffey D, Minard CG, Cunningham RM, Sahni LC, Boom JA. Parental report of vaccine receipt in children with autism spectrum disorder: Do rates differ by pattern of ASD onset? Vaccine. 2016 Mar 8;34(11):1335-42. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.008. Epub 2016 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 26868082.
  64. Halsey NA, Hyman SL; Conference Writing Panel. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):E84. Review. PubMed PMID: 11331734.
  65. Hamad AF, Alessi-Severini S, Mahmud SM, Brownell M, Kuo IF. Prenatal antibiotics exposure and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: A population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0221921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221921. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31465485; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6715235.
  66. Hayney MS. Vaccine safety: no link between thimerosal and autism. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):725-6. PubMed PMID: 15637857.
  67. Hertz-Picciotto I, Green PG, Delwiche L, Hansen R, Walker C, Pessah IN. Blood mercury concentrations in CHARGE Study children with and without autism. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jan;118(1):161-6. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900736. PubMed PMID: 20056569; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2831962.
  68. Hensley E, Briars L. Closer look at autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Nov-Dec;50(6):736-41. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.10004. Review. PubMed PMID: 21071320.
  69. Heron J, Golding J; ALSPAC Study Team. Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):577-83. PubMed PMID: 15342824.
  70. Hessel L. [Mercury in vaccines]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2003;187(8):1501-10. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 15146581.
  71. Honda H, Shimizu Y, Rutter M. No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;46(6):572-9. PubMed PMID: 15877763.
  72. Hornig M, Briese T, Buie T, Bauman ML, Lauwers G, Siemetzki U, Hummel K, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, O’Leary JJ, Sheils O, Alden E, Pickering L, Lipkin WI. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study. PLoS One. 2008 Sep 4;3(9):e3140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003140. PubMed PMID: 18769550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2526159.
  73. Hotez PJ. Texas and Its Measles Epidemics. PLoS Med. 2016 Oct 25;13(10):e1002153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002153. PubMed PMID: 27780206; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5079653.
  74. Hurley AM, Tadrous M, Miller ES. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiologic studies. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jul;15(3):173-81. PubMed PMID: 22477809; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3018252.
  75. Hutton J. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal? Front Hum Neurosci. 2016 Feb 1;10:25. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00025. Review. PubMed PMID: 26869906; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4734211.
  76. Hviid A, Stellfeld M, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M. Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1763-6. PubMed PMID: 14519711.
  77. Hviid A, Hansen JV, Frisch M, Melbye M. Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Mar 5. doi: 10.7326/M18-2101. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30831578.
  78. Institute of Medicine (US) Immunization Safety Review Committee. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004.PubMed PMID: 20669467.
  79. Iqbal S, Barile JP, Thompson WW, DeStefano F. Number of antigens in early childhood vaccines and neuropsychological outcomes at age 7-10 years. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Dec;22(12):1263-70. doi: 10.1002/pds.3482. Epub 2013 Jul 12. PubMed PMID: 23847024.
  80. Jain A, Marshall J, Buikema A, Bancroft T, Kelly JP, Newschaffer CJ. Autism Occurrence by MMR Vaccine Status Among US Children With Older Siblings With and Without Autism. JAMA. 2015 Apr 21;313(15):1534-1540. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.3077. PubMed PMID: 25898051.
  81. Jefferson T, Rudin M, Di Pietrantonj C. Adverse events after immunisation with aluminium-containing DTP vaccines: systematic review of the evidence. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Feb;4(2):84-90. Review. PubMed PMID: 14871632.
  82. Jefferson T, Price D, Demicheli V, Bianco E; European Research Program for Improved Vaccine Safety Surveillance (EUSAFEVAC) Project. Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):3954-60. Review. PubMed PMID: 12922131.
  83. Jick H, Kaye JA. Epidemiology and possible causes of autism. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Dec;23(12):1524-30. Erratum in: Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(4):following table of contents. PubMed PMID: 14695031.
  84. Jones-Jang SM, Noland C. The Politicization of Health and Science: Role of Political Cues in Shaping the Beliefs of the Vaccine-Autism Link. Health Commun. 2022 May;37(5):608-616. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2020.1859723. Epub 2020 Dec 14. PMID: 33307819.
  85. Jutla A, Reed H, Veenstra-VanderWeele J. The Architecture of Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk: What Do We Know, and Where Do We Go From Here?. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 17;. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1375. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31314055.
  86. Kaye JA, del Mar Melero-Montes M, Jick H. Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. BMJ. 2001 Feb 24;322(7284):460-3. PubMed PMID: 11222420; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC26561.
  87. King BH. Promising Forecast for Autism Spectrum Disorders. JAMA. 2015 Apr 21;313(15):1518-1519. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.2628. PubMed PMID: 25898047.
  88. Klein KC, Diehl EB. Relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Jul-Aug;38(7-8):1297-300. Epub 2004 Jun 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 15173555.
  89. Kuppili PP, Manohar H, Menon V. Current status of vaccines in psychiatry-A narrative review. Asian J Psychiatr. 2018 Jan;31:112-120. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2018.02.004. Epub 2018 Feb 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 29476951.
  90. Lazoff T, Zhong L, Piperni T, Fombonne E. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders among children at the English Montreal School Board. Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;55(11):715-20. PubMed PMID: 21070699.
  91. Lingam R, Simmons A, Andrews N, Miller E, Stowe J, Taylor B. Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a north east London population. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Aug;88(8):666-70. PubMed PMID: 12876158; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1719604.
  92. Ludvigsson JF, Winell H, Sandin S, Cnattingius S, Stephansson O, Pasternak B. Maternal Influenza A(H1N1) Immunization During Pregnancy and Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring : A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Sep 1. doi: 10.7326/M20-0167. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32866418.
  93. Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Olsen J, Melbye M. A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 7;347(19):1477-82. PubMed PMID: 12421889.
  94. Madsen KM, Hviid A, Vestergaard M, Schendel D, Wohlfahrt J, Thorsen P, Olsen J, Melbye M. [MMR vaccination and autism–a population-based follow-up study]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2002 Dec 2;164(49):5741-4. Danish. PubMed PMID: 12523209.
  95. Madsen KM, Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Thorsen P, Plesner AM, Andersen PH, Mortensen PB. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data. Pediatrics. 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):604-6. PubMed PMID: 12949291.
  96. Madsen KM, Vestergaard M. MMR vaccination and autism : what is the evidence for a causal association? Drug Saf. 2004;27(12):831-40. Review. PubMed PMID: 15366972.
  97. Mäkelä A, Nuorti JP, Peltola H. Neurologic disorders after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):957-63. PubMed PMID: 12415036.
  98. Maglione MA, Das L, Raaen L, Smith A, Chari R, Newberry S, Shanman R, Perry T, Goetz MB, Gidengil C. Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics; 2014 July 1 (published online). doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1079
  99. Marin M, Broder KR, Temte JL, Snider DE, Seward JF; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 May 7;59(RR-3):1-12. PubMed PMID: 20448530.
  100. Marwick C. US report finds no link between MMR and autism. BMJ. 2001 May 5;322(7294):1083. PubMed PMID: 11337432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1120232.
  101. Meadows M. IOM report: no link between vaccines and autism. FDA Consum. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):18-9. PubMed PMID: 15595144.
  102. Meilleur AA, Fombonne E. Regression of language and non-language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2009 Feb;53(2):115-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01134.x. Epub 2008 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 19054269.
  103. Miller E. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and the development of autism. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2003 Jul;14(3):199-206. Review. PubMed PMID: 12913832.
  104. Miller E, Andrews N, Grant A, Stowe J, Taylor B. No evidence of an association between MMR vaccine and gait disturbance. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Mar;90(3):292-6. PubMed PMID: 15723921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1720314.
  105. Miller L, Reynolds J. Autism and vaccination-the current evidence. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2009 Jul;14(3):166-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2009.00194.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19614825.
  106. MMR vaccine does not cause autism. J Paediatr Child Health. 2019 Aug;55(8):996. doi: 10.1111/jpc.14509. PubMed PMID: 31386289.
  107. Mohammed SA, Rajashekar S, Giri Ravindran S, Kakarla M, Ausaja Gambo M, Yousri Salama M, Haidar Ismail N, Tavalla P, Uppal P, Hamid P. Does Vaccination Increase the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder? Cureus. 2022 Aug 12;14(8):e27921. doi: 10.7759/cureus.27921. PMID: 36110492; PMCID: PMC9464417.
  108. Morris G, Puri BK, Frye RE, Maes M. The Putative Role of Environmental Mercury in the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Subtypes. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Jul 22. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0692-2. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 28733900.
  109. Motta M, Callaghan T, Sylvester S. Knowing less but presuming more: Dunning-Kruger effects and the endorsement of anti-vaccine policy attitudes. Soc Sci Med. 2018 Aug;211:274-281. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.032. Epub 2018 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 29966822.
  110. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A, Majewska R. Lack of association between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism in children: a case-control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 May;29(5):397-400. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c40a8a. PubMed PMID: 19952979.
  111. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A. [The relationship between MMR vaccination level and the number of new cases of autism in children].Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62(3):597-604. Polish. PubMed PMID: 19108524.
  112. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Kiełtyka A, Majewska R. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2009;63(1):107-12. Polish. PubMed PMID: 19522237.
  113. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Majewska R, Kiełtyka A, Augustyniak M. [Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].Przegl Epidemiol. 2011;65(3):491-5. Polish. PubMed PMID: 22184954.
  114. Mrozek-Budzyn D, Majewska R, Kiełtyka A. Early exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and children’s cognitive development. A 9-year prospective birth cohort study in Poland. Eur J Pediatr. 2015 Mar;174(3):383-91. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2412-5. Epub 2014 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 25185528; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4334107.
  115. Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I. The genetics of autism. Pediatrics. 2004 May;113(5):e472-86. Review. PubMed PMID: 15121991.
  116. Nelson KB, Bauman ML. Thimerosal and autism? Pediatrics. 2003 Mar;111(3):674-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 12612255.
  117. Ng M, de Montigny JG, Ofner M, Do MT. Environmental factors associated with autism spectrum disorder: a scoping review for the years 2003-2013. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Jan;37(1):1-23. English, French. PubMed PMID: 28102992.
  118. Offit PA. Vaccines and autism in primate model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Oct 6;112(40):12236-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516574112. Epub 2015 Sep 28. PubMed PMID: 26417097; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4603512.
  119. Offit PA. Thimerosal and vaccines–a cautionary tale. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1278-9. PubMed PMID: 17898096.
  120. Offit PA, Coffin SE. Communicating science to the public: MMR vaccine and autism. Vaccine. 2003 Dec 8;22(1):1-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 14604564.
  121. OʼLeary ST, Riley LE, Lindley MC, Allison MA, Albert AP, Fisher A, Jiles AJ, Crane LA, Hurley LP, Beaty B, Brtnikova M, Kempe A. Obstetrician-Gynecologists’ Strategies to Address Vaccine Refusal Among Pregnant Women. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jan;133(1):40-47. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003005. PubMed PMID: 30531564.
  122. Omer SB, Yildirim I. Further Evidence of MMR Vaccine Safety: Scientific and Communications Considerations. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Mar 5. doi: 10.7326/M19-0596. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30831577.
  123. Ophir Y, Jamieson KH. Intentions to use a novel Zika vaccine: the effects of misbeliefs about the MMR vaccine and perceptions about Zika. J Public Health (Oxf). 2018 Mar 15. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy042. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29554290.
  124. Patja A, Davidkin I, Kurki T, Kallio MJ, Valle M, Peltola H. Serious adverse events after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during a fourteen-year prospective follow-up. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Dec;19(12):1127-34. PubMed PMID: 11144371.
  125. Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK. Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):793-804. Review. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):200. PubMed PMID: 15342856.
  126. Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, Treanor J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thiomersal: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41. PubMed PMID: 12480426.
  127. Plotkin SA, Offit PA, DeStefano F, Larson HJ, Arora NK, Zuber PLF, Fombonne E, Sejvar J, Lambert PH, Hviid A, Halsey N, Garçon N, Peden K, Pollard AJ, Markowitz LE, Glanz J. The science of vaccine safety: Summary of meeting at Wellcome Trust. Vaccine. 2020 Jan 24;. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.01.024. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 31987690.
  128. Peltola H, Patja A, Leinikki P, Valle M, Davidkin I, Paunio M. No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study. Lancet. 1998 May 2;351(9112):1327-8. PubMed PMID: 9643797.
  129. Price CS, Thompson WW, Goodson B, Weintraub ES, Croen LA, Hinrichsen VL, Marcy M, Robertson A, Eriksen E, Lewis E, Bernal P, Shay D, Davis RL, DeStefano F. Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):656-64. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0309. Epub 2010 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 20837594.
  130. Qian M, Chou SY, Lai EK. Confirmatory bias in health decisions: Evidence from the MMR-autism controversy. J Health Econ. 2020 Mar;70:102284. doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2019.102284. Epub 2020 Feb 10. PMID: 32057491.
  131. Roehr B. Study finds no association between autism and vaccination. BMJ. 2013 Apr 3;346:f2095. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2095. PubMed PMID: 23554072.
  132. Richler J, Luyster R, Risi S, Hsu WL, Dawson G, Bernier R, Dunn M, Hepburn S, Hyman SL, McMahon WM, Goudie-Nice J, Minshew N, Rogers S, Sigman M, Spence MA, Goldberg WA, Tager-Flusberg H, Volkmar FR, Lord C. Is there a ‘regressive phenotype’ of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Apr;36(3):299-316. PubMed PMID: 16729252.
  133. Rümke HC, Visser HK. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004 Feb 21;148(8):364-71. Review. Dutch. PubMed PMID: 15032089.
  134. Russell SJ, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Bexon A, Cattaneo R, Dingli D, Dispenzieri A, Deyle DR, Federspiel MJ, Fielding A, Galanis E, Lacy MQ, Leibovich BC, Liu MC, Muñoz-Alía M, Miest TC, Molina JR, Mueller S, Okuno SH, Packiriswamy N, Peikert T, Raffel C, Van Rhee F, Ungerechts G, Young PR, Zhou Y, Peng KW. Oncolytic Measles Virotherapy and Opposition to Measles Vaccination. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Sep;94(9):1834-1839. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.05.006. Epub 2019 Jun 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 31235278; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6800178.
  135. Saemundsen E, Magnússon P, Georgsdóttir I, Egilsson E, Rafnsson V. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in an Icelandic birth cohort. BMJ Open. 2013 Jun 20;3(6). pii: e002748. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002748. PubMed PMID: 23788511; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3693420.
  136. Schechter R, Grether JK. Continuing increases in autism reported to California’s developmental services system: mercury in retrograde.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;65(1):19-24. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.1. PubMed PMID: 18180424.
  137. Schultz ST. Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):187-95. Review. PubMed PMID: 20628442.
  138. Sealey LA, Hughes BW, Sriskanda AN, Guest JR, Gibson AD, Johnson-Williams L, Pace DG, Bagasra O. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders. Environ Int. 2016 Mar;88:288-98. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.021. Epub 2016 Jan 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 26826339.
  139. Shevell M, Fombonne E. Autism and MMR vaccination or thimerosal exposure: an urban legend? Can J Neurol Sci. 2006 Nov;33(4):339-40. PubMed PMID: 17168157.
  140. Singh VK, Rivas WH. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines. J Biomed Sci. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):607-10. PubMed PMID: 15316135.
  141. Smeeth L, Cook C, Fombonne E, Heavey L, Rodrigues LC, Smith PG, Hall AJ. MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study. Lancet. 2004 Sep 11-17;364(9438):963-9. PubMed PMID: 15364187.
  142. Smith MJ, Woods CR. On-time vaccine receipt in the first year does not adversely affect neuropsychological outcomes. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):1134-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2489. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20498176.
  143. Solt I, Bornstein J. [Childhood vaccines and autism–much ado about nothing?]. Harefuah. 2010 Apr;149(4):251-5, 260. Review. Hebrew. PubMed PMID: 20812501.
  144. Spencer JP, Trondsen Pawlowski RH, Thomas S. Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Jun 15;95(12):786-794. Review. PubMed PMID: 28671426.
  145. Steffenburg S, Steffenburg U, Gillberg C. Autism spectrum disorders in children with active epilepsy and learning disability: comorbidity, pre- and perinatal background, and seizure characteristics. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003 Nov;45(11):724-30. PubMed PMID: 14580127.
  146. Stehr-Green P, Tull P, Stellfeld M, Mortenson PB, Simpson D. Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: lack of consistent evidence for an association. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Aug;25(2):101-6. PubMed PMID: 12880876.
  147. Stoner R, Chow ML, Boyle MP, Sunkin SM, Mouton PR, Roy S, Wynshaw-Boris A, Colamarino SA, Lein ES, Courchesne E. Patches of disorganization in the neocortex of children with autism. N Engl J Med. 2014 Mar 27;370(13):1209-19. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1307491. PubMed PMID: 24670167; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4499461.
  148. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. Vaccines to Children: Protective Effect and Adverse Events: A Systematic Review [Internet]. Stockholm: Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU); 2009 Feb. Available From PubMed PMID: 28876765.
  149. Takahashi H, Suzumura S, Shirakizawa F, Wada N, Tanaka-Taya K, Arai S, Okabe N, Ichikawa H, Sato T. An epidemiological study on Japanese autism concerning routine childhood immunization history. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun;56(3):114-7. PubMed PMID: 12944678.
  150. Taylor B, Lingam R, Simmons A, Stowe J, Miller E, Andrews N. Autism and MMR vaccination in North London; no causal relationship.Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S7-8. PubMed PMID: 12142932.
  151. Taylor B. Vaccines and the changing epidemiology of autism. Child Care Health Dev. 2006 Sep;32(5):511-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 16919130.
  152. Taylor B, Miller E, Farrington CP, Petropoulos MC, Favot-Mayaud I, Li J, Waight PA. Autism and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet. 1999 Jun 12;353(9169):2026-9. PubMed PMID: 10376617.
  153. Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 16;324(7334):393-6. PubMed PMID: 11850369; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC65532.
  154. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine. 2014 Jun 17;32(29):3623-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. Epub 2014 May 9. PubMed PMID: 24814559.
  155. Thjodleifsson B, Davídsdóttir K, Agnarsson U, Sigthórsson G, Kjeld M, Bjarnason I. Effect of Pentavac and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on the intestine. Gut. 2002 Dec;51(6):816-7. PubMed PMID: 12427783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1773472.
  156. Thompson WW, Price C, Goodson B, Shay DK, Benson P, Hinrichsen VL, Lewis E, Eriksen E, Ray P, Marcy SM, Dunn J, Jackson LA, Lieu TA, Black S, Stewart G, Weintraub ES, Davis RL, DeStefano F; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1281-92. PubMed PMID: 17898097.
  157. Tomeny TS, Vargo CJ, El-Toukhy S. Geographic and demographic correlates of autism-related anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-15. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Oct;191:168-175. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.08.041. Epub 2017 Sep 4. PubMed PMID: 28926775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5623105.
  158. Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Inaba Y. MMR-vaccine and regression in autism spectrum disorders: negative results presented from Japan. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Feb;37(2):210-7. PubMed PMID: 16865547.
  159. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Aleksic B, Ozaki N. The combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and the total number of vaccines are not associated with development of autism spectrum disorder: the first case-control study in Asia. Vaccine. 2012 Jun 13;30(28):4292-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.093. Epub 2012 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 22521285.
  160. Uno Y, Uchiyama T, Kurosawa M, Aleksic B, Ozaki N. Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Vaccine. 2015 May 15;33(21):2511-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.036. PubMed PMID: 25562790.
  161. Verstraeten T, Davis RL, DeStefano F, Lieu TA, Rhodes PH, Black SB, Shinefield H, Chen RT; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a two-phased study of computerized health maintenance organization databases. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):1039-48. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2004 Jan;113(1):184. PubMed PMID: 14595043.
  162. Whitehouse AJ, Maybery M, Wray JA, Hickey M. No association between early gastrointestinal problems and autistic-like traits in the general population. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 May;53(5):457-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.03915.x. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 21418197.
  163. Weisser K, Bauer K, Volkers P, Keller-Stanislawski B. [Thiomersal and immunisations]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2004 Dec;47(12):1165-74. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 15583887.
  164. Zerbo O, Qian Y, Yoshida C, Fireman BH, Klein NP, Croen LA. Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jan 2;171(1):e163609. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3609. PubMed PMID: 27893896.


In almost every case in the list above, I’ve linked to the PubMed abstract, which often has limited information and lacks detailed analyses of methods, statistics and results. It is always preferred that you read the full article, but many of these publications sit behind expensive paywalls (I hate paywalls, they limit free access to scientific data). Students, especially in scientific fields and most academic physicians have access to the full article through their schools’ journal search engine. I have personal access to many, if not most, of the actual articles, and have read them in detail.

PubMed occasionally links to a “free” full version of the article. It can be found on buttons on the top right of the PubMed page, which says “Free Full Text” or something similar. These links may direct you to the actual journal, which graciously makes some articles free for the public, or to PubMed Central, a US National Institutes of Health library of full-text medical and biological articles (although you can find the occasional article in other areas of science). I do not link, usually, to the free version of an article because it changes all the time, so I have found it better to go to PubMed. If there is a PubMed Central version of the article, you will see “PubMed Central PMCID:” in the standardized citation (which I always use for scientific journal articles). Using the PMC number, you can search for it through Google or the PMC website.

Michael Simpson

Don’t miss each new article!

We don’t spam! Read our privacy policy for more info.

Liked it? Take a second to support Michael Simpson on Patreon!
Become a patron at Patreon!