Science denialism politics – vaccines, GMOs, evolution, climate change

science denialism politics

On an episode of his HBO political talk show, Real Time with Bill Maher, Maher repeated his contention that the Republican Party, more generally the right wing of the American political spectrum, is the party of science denialism politics.

I am no fan of Bill Maher, because, in fact, he himself is is a science denier. Maher hits some of the top 10 list of science denialism: he’s an anti-vaccine crackpot, he’s pro-alternative medicine, he’s on the verge of AIDS denialism, and, to top it off, he hates GMO foods.

In other words, Maher, a leftist by any stretch of the meaning, embraces science denialism politics in a way that would probably inspire your local climate change or evolution denier on the right.

HBO’s other political news-ish program, Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, features British comedian Oliver, who is pro-science on every issue I’ve heard, including scientific research and vaccines.

Neil deGrasse Tyson was a guest on Maher’s episode, and contradicted him regarding the claim that Republicans hold the monopoly on junk science:

Don’t be too high and mighty there, because there are certain aspects of science denials that are squarely in the liberal left.

I like to generalize about the politics of science denialism politics – I and many others have claimed that the anti-GMO crowd is nothing more than the left’s version of climate change deniers. But some people have taken umbrage with Tyson’s comments, and believe that science denialism cannot be correlated with political beliefs.

One caveat about this article – it is primarily focused on American politics. In many countries, both the left and right accept the consensus on scientific principles like evolution and vaccines. Only in America is science denialism the default position, crossing party boundaries.

Let’s take a look at left vs. right ideas about science, and how each embrace science denialism and pseudoscience. It’s quite a bit more complicated than you can imagine.

Continue reading “Science denialism politics – vaccines, GMOs, evolution, climate change”

Anti-GMO anti-vaccine activists – convergent evolution

anti-GMO anti-vaccine

I naively once thought that anti-GMO activists only occasionally crossed paths with the anti-vaccine ones. Sure, on the Venn diagram of anti-science beliefs, anti-GMO anti-vaccine activists overlapped quite a bit, but I just thought they were separate species. Maybe they once were, but there appears to be a substantial amount of convergent evolution between the separate species of anti-science activists. It’s hard to distinguish the two these days, as I regularly see one or the other type of activists just lump GMOs and vaccines together as one evil against all children.

Anti-GMO and anti-vaccine zealots may have started independently for different reasons. These days, however,  they have converged into one group, the anti-GMO anti-vaccine militants, which utilize almost the exact same methodology:

  • Ignore, attack or belittle the scientific consensus.
  • Cherry picking badly designed and poorly analyzed published to support their pre-conceived conclusions rather than examining the body of evidence and see what conclusions one can reach from it.
  • Creating ridiculous straw men based on conspiracy theories and misinformation.

Using bad, or no science, the anti-GMO anti-vaccine extremists attempt to blame each science, and/or both together, as the cause of a whole host off issues with children – autism, other neurological disorders, allergies, and so many others it would take 5 articles to describe them all. Worse yet, they try to simplify their messages with memes and tropes that attempt to scare the reasonable parent away from the safety of GMOs and vaccines. We’ve all seen the the photos with a tough looking nurse or doctor trying to inject a crying baby with a syringe that is so large, it appears to be used for elephants. Or to really conflate the issues, a photo with some researcher injecting chemicals (and genes I suppose) into an ear of corn or tomato. As if that’s how GMOs are created.

Let’s take a look at the three areas where the anti-GMO anti-vaccine activists have gone off the rails.

 

Anti-GMO anti-vaccine anti-scientific consensus

I think a scientific consensus is an extremely important stage of developing new scientific ideas and principles. The scientific consensus is the collective opinion and judgement of scientists in a particular field of study. This consensus implies general agreement, and if there is disagreement, it is limited and generally insignificant. For example, the scientific consensus around GMOs doesn’t arrive from mathematicians or quantum physicists – the consensus is formed by the leading experts in the field, including geneticists, plant biologists, agronomists, other agricultural scientists.

It doesn’t come about from a handful of scientists over dinner and drinks, as has been stated by lots of opponents. In fact, a scientific consensus is quite different from the consensus used in a political or group sense.  There are three criteria necessary to establish an evidence based consensus:

  • Consilience of Evidence – Many different fields of science all contribute to the understanding of major scientific principles, such as anthropogenic climate change – scientists range across the fields of biology, geology, chemistry, and other natural sciences. Similarly, our acceptance of the safety and effectiveness of vaccines is supported by research in diverse fields like epidemiology, public health, microbiology, immunology, virology, physiology and many others. It’s not one subspecialty of science that builds the consensus, it’s several interrelated ones.
  • Social calibration – The experts involved in the consensus agree on standards for evidence – and this standard is ridiculously high, which is why it is so powerful. Moreover, there is broad and powerful evidence that creates a scientific consensus, something that is lacking in pseudoscience. For example, the best research in the biomedical sciences are either a double blind clinical trial or a case-controlled epidemiological studies, both with huge number of participants.
  • Social Diversity – Having researchers from many cultural and economic backgrounds provides diversity that helps eliminate social biases as a cause of error. For example, the published literature on the safety of GMOs has provided agreement from researchers in countries around the world from various cultural  backgrounds.If the evidence of safety only came from middle-class white scientists, whose parents are farmers, and who live in St. Louis, Missouri only 5 blocks from Monsanto headquarters, we might rightfully suspect the consensus. But in general consensus is formed by the weight of evidence, and to get that weight requires research from nearly everywhere on the planet.

Furthermore, and this is a key point – a consensus is not permanent, because, as I’ve said a number of times, science is not dogmatic. If contradictory evidence arises, of the same quality and quantity that formed the original consensus, then the established concord could fall apart, or move to a different one. Remember, all science is provisional – if the evidence changes, the consensus changes.

But you can’t disestablish the consensus based on one cherry picked article found in some obscure predatory journal. Writing “GMOs are dangerous” with crayon on a big sheet of paper will have all of the effect of a badly designed, written and reviewed paper in a junk journal. That would be nothing.

Actually, scientific consensuses require the best research available. It generally relies upon the highest level of excellence that science has to offer. On the hierarchy of scientific evidence, meta reviews and large studies count the most, and scientific consensuses generally demand these studies to even get formed. Again, it isn’t 5 old white guys eating a steak and drinking expensive wine who make this decision. It’s the evidence that drives the consensus.

The number of meta-reviews that have shown no link between GMOs and issues between humans, animals (livestock) and the environment is fairly robust. Similarly, there is overwhelming scientific evidence about the safety of vaccines with respect to autism.

One of those prestigious scientific bodies, the AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Sciences), has released a statement regarding a GMO scientific consensus  (pdf):

The science is quite clear: crop improvement by the modern molecular techniques of biotechnology is safe … The World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the British Royal Society, and every other respected organization that has examined the evidence has come to the same conclusion: consuming foods containing ingredients derived from GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by conventional plant improvement techniques.

Just to be clear, the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences is an international non-profit organization that has as its stated goals to promote cooperation among scientists, to defend scientific freedom, to encourage scientific responsibility, and to support scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world’s largest and most prestigious general scientific society, and is the publisher of the well-respected, high impact-factor scientific journal Science

There are a number of other international scientific bodies that agree with this consensus. This is a fairly solid consensus, any way you examine it.

It’s the same with vaccines. The National Academy of Sciences, probably the most prestigious scientific institution in the world, has written:

Vaccines offer the promise of protection against a variety of infectious diseases. Despite much media attention and strong opinions from many quarters, vaccines remain one of the greatest tools in the public health arsenal. Certainly, some vaccines result in adverse effects that must be acknowledged. But the latest evidence shows that few adverse effects are caused by the vaccines reviewed in this report.

This consensus wasn’t achieved by the aforementioned dinner and wine. It is backed by a massive review of the vaccine literature, where they looked at every possible adverse effect and weighed it against the benefits.

I know, some anti-GMO anti-vaccine activists will like to say that these consensuses are bought off by Big Agra or Big Pharma – but those appeals to conspiracy are worthless. Bring evidence, once again in both the quality and quantity that formed the consensus in the first place, and we can then look at revising the consensus. But it becomes tiresome to read an anti-GMO anti-vaccine screed whereby someone with a degree in art or marketing thinks they have it within themselves to dismiss the whole scientific consensus about vaccines and GMOs. These statements aren’t weak, pathetic thoughts from a few drunk scientists – they are powerful statements that completely contradict what the anti-science activists say.

 

Cherry-picking studies

I cannot repeat this enough. Science deniers are all alike – they think they can pick and choose which science agrees with their beliefs. I know that the anti-GMO anti-vaccine forces will hate this, but they do precisely what the climate change deniers do. Ignore all science that supports the real scientific consensus while cherry picking the worst possible studies as long as it fits in their narrative about the dangers of GMOs and vaccines.

The anti-GMO zealots spent a year (actually more), trying to prove that a study by Gilles-Eric Séralini, poorly designed and analyzed research that didn’t show us that GMO corn caused cancer – but the anti-GMO forces believe it, as a matter of faith, showed the world that GMOs are dangerous. Gasp! Of course, that study was eventually retracted, and ultimately, gave us zero evidence about the safety of GMO articles.

As I mentioned above, there are dozens of high-powered meta reviews and large subject number studies that have examined the impact of GMOs on human health, animal heath and the environment. They sit at the top of the hierarchy of scientific research and provide us with the solid evidence that GMOs are extraordinarily safe.

But if you scan the blogosphere of the anti-GMO world, you will find the same old logical fallacies used by all science deniers (anti-vaccine types included). They’ll find one article and pounce on it. But they fail to examine the article critically, they don’t check the premise, or analyze the plausibility of results, statistics, methods – all things that a real scientist would do. And more often than not, the research that seems to “support” the anti-GMO side is a one-off primary research article that has never been repeated. Or has been retracted.

The same thing happens with our “friends” over on the anti-vaccine side. Late in 2016, a paper was published and retracted by a predatory journal. Just a few weeks ago, that same paper was republished in another predatory journal, and then was almost immediately retracted. The paper (both versions) tried to show that vaccinated children were less healthy than unvaccinated ones. But an analysis of the research, irrespective of whether it was retracted or not, showed us nothing about whether vaccinated children were less healthy than unvaccinated ones. Nothing at all.

Real scientists across the world pointed out how bad the article was – it did not meet even the lowest level of credibility. Yet, the anti-vaccine world, like Sayer Ji, jumped all over the article (even after it was retracted) as proof of the danger of vaccines.

If these were the only cases, maybe the anti-GMO anti-vaccine forces could not be criticized – unfortunately, this happens all of the time. But the larger point is that there is no evidence being published that support their points of view on GMOs and vaccines. Not even close. The best they can do is scan bad journals and cherry pick terrible articles to make it seem like there’s a controversy about GMOs and vaccines. But there simply isn’t, except in the minds of these activists.

 

Creating straw men

The anti-GMO anti-vaccine science deniers, lacking evidence of any quality, have decided that since there is no evidence, or they have only really bad evidence that supports their beliefs, they have to go on the attack. So they invent ad hominem criticisms about Monsanto, which include conflating GMOs with Monsanto’s Round Up herbicide. glyphosate. They invent stories that GMOs all require glyphosate, because evil Monsanto is trying to poison us.

The facts are that the case against glyphosate, independent of GMOs, is ridiculously weak (and beyond the discussion of the article). But to conflate the two, when most GMO crops have little to nothing to do with glyphosate, is just a method to mischaracterize GMOs as unsafe. There are other strawman arguments used by the GMO deniers, including that Monsanto owns the GMO seeds so they’re trying to destroy agriculture. Or something, the arguments often fall flat.

The same tactics are used by the pseudoscience pushing vaccine deniers. They want us to believe that vaccines are a huge profit center for Big Pharma, so they’re foisting vaccines onto the innocent population of the world. An interesting argument that falls apart with real analysis. Setting aside the inane belief that all employees of Big Pharma are pod-people who all march in lockstep to the demands of the corporation, what would a truly greedy Big Pharma executive really want? Well, vaccines prevent diseases – and there’s nothing more that Big Pharma would want is hospitals filled with critically ill patients who need all kinds of devices, equipment and medication to survive. In fact, Big Pharma clearly would make more profit in a world filled with measles and polio epidemics than they would by selling vaccines.

So, the anti-vaccine activists need to be consistent – is Big Pharma really evil and greedy? If they are, they would shut down every vaccine manufacturing plant, convert it to making hospital beds and IVs, and wait for the millions of sick children. But of course, not a single Big Pharma exec would ever joke about it, because they’re goal is always to create products that save lives, not causing disease.

 

Can we change minds?

Dr. Daniel Summers asked a rhetorical question in the Washington Post with respect to vaccine denial, “At what point does a body of evidence become massive enough to count as proof? When has a question been answered enough times that it can be put to rest?”

Kavin Senapathy, writing in Forbes, answered:

When it comes to the anti-vaccine and anti-GMO movements, the answer is never. There is absolutely no amount of evidence that will convince them to drop the ideology and distrust in expertise and in the vast weight of evidence. These movements are based in conspiracy theories, plain and simple. A hallmark of conspiracy theories is that they are unfalsifiable—a matter of faith rather than reason—and therefore any opposing information becomes part of the conspiracy theory.

People constantly dismiss real science because they have a political or personal belief system that just dismisses rational scientific evidence. Right wing conservatives, using precisely the same methods and ignorance as the anti-GMO anti-vaccine activists, deny the existence of human caused global warming. Why? Because accepting the science will contradict their tightly held beliefs that coal mining, drilling for oil, and emission standards on cars are all evil political stances of the left.

But the left doesn’t get a pass. I often cross-post these articles to the Daily Kos, a left-leaning website, and I constantly get trolled by science denying liberals who just want to believe that autism is caused by GMOs. Or labelling GMOs isn’t really a science issue. Ironically, I have higher standards for liberals with respect for science, so it is even more despicable when these faux liberals become real-life science deniers, just like their buddies over on the right. What makes the left’s science denying on GMOs and vaccines particularly galling is that by denying it, they hurt those who need it more. Dropping GMOs will only lead to increases in the price of food, especially for those who cannot afford higher prices. And let’s not overlook the fact that the white privileged types who prefer their gluten-free/GMO-free food from Whole Foods think to themselves, “I’m buying better food, and I don’t care about those who have to buy the lower quality food.” Even though that belief is unscientific, so those individuals on “food stamps” are buying the same scientifically sound food as their rich white liberal counterparts.

There’s evidence in California, that the higher clusters of unvaccinated kids occurred mostly in wealthy, white, liberal areas of the state. Those people believe, again without a stitch of scientific evidence, that their precious snowflakes don’t need vaccines because they are protected by crystals, acupuncture, a GMO/gluten free diet, and whatever other new age pseudoscientific nonsense is flying through the community. Maybe some of these white liberals just think they’re genetically superior, I don’t know.

Well, who gets hurt by this? Yeah, once again, it’s those who are least able to protect themselves. Babies who aren’t ready to be vaccinated. Children with immune deficiency. Poor immigrant families who are saving up to get their kids vaccinated.

The science clearly shows us that most of this science denialism is wrong. Very wrong. Yet it exists, even among educated liberals and conservatives. To me, the science is clear. I don’t presume to be Neil deGrasse Tyson, so I’m mostly incapable of explaining astrophysics to you – but I’m smart enough to know when someone like Dr. Tyson has got it all right.  But I do presume that I know biomedical science pretty well, I’ve got 40 years of experience – and the overwhelming evidence tells me that vaccines and GMOs are safe. And I’m not cherry picking, I’m doing real science. I look where the science takes me, and it’s damn clear.

If you think that vaccines haven’t saved millions of lives across the world, and still don’t get your kids vaccinated, you need the sign that says “science denier.” If you think that GMOs cannot safely feed the planet and save many countries from regular starvation, then you need that sign again. You are a science denier.

I forgot to mention one important – there are GMO ingredients in vaccines. Uh oh.

 

Neil deGrasse Tyson–unafraid of GMO’s

tyson-science-true

For those who read my article about Neil deGrasse Tyson’s comments to the anti-GMO forces to “chill out”, here’s a tweet from him from 18 months ago. He didn’t just think about this issue recently.

Add this to the other world class scientist who thinks that artificial selection is no different than genetic engineering, since they both rely upon changes in genes. One’s random. One’s not.

Neil deGrasse Tyson tells GMO haters to chill out–liberals get angry

Credit to Wikimedia.
Credit to Wikimedia.

Neil deGrasse Tyson, probably the most popular astrophysicist, if not scientist, of this generation, replaced Carl Sagan as the spokesman of all things science for the country. While not ignoring Bill Nye‘s impact on making science education fun and approachable (and who took classes from Carl Sagan at Cornell University), Sagan literally passed the baton of being the country’s science teacher to Tyson.

For those of us on the left side of the political spectrum, Tyson is like the hero of the pro-science crowd. This past spring, Tyson hosted a program, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, which described and supported some of the great science ideas of our time–evolution, age of the universe, human caused climate change, and other major scientific principles. Ironically, the show was broadcast in the USA on the Fox TV network, whose news division can be charitably described as ultraconservative. Right wing Christian fundamentalist groups, one of the main key demographic groups who watch Fox News, loathed Cosmos for trumpeting scientific knowledge over religious interpretations in just about every one of the the 13 episodes.

Of course, for every reason that Fox News hated Cosmos (even though it was a huge ratings success for Fox, and has garnered a significant number of TV awards and nominations), those of us on the pro-science side loved it. Now, I’m a rarity in the science community in that I did not enjoy the show (the animations offended me on so many levels, but apparently kids loved it), I did watch every episode and would have to rank the episodes on evolution and global warming as some of the best science TV I’d ever seen–despite the lame graphics. Continue reading “Neil deGrasse Tyson tells GMO haters to chill out–liberals get angry”

The moon is made of cheese–Big Milk’s coverup of the Truth

moon-cheesePresented herewith is an online discussion with someone about the science of the earth’s moon. Or, pseudoscience.
Skeptical Raptor: The moon is a large, rocky body that orbits the earth. It is approximately 4.4 billion years old.
Moon Denier Society: The moon is made of cheese. That is the truth.
SR: The moon is not made of cheese. NASA landed on the moon and brought back rocks.
MDS: The moon is made of cheese. NASA faked the moon landings, everyone knows that. Those are just earth rocks.
SR: The moon is not made of cheese. We have evidence of the moon landings. And moon rocks differ so much from earth rocks, you couldn’t just exchange some rocks found on the ground with moon rocks. And they found no evidence of cheese anywhere.

Continue reading “The moon is made of cheese–Big Milk’s coverup of the Truth”

Celebrating a hero

Today, 67 years ago, Jackie Robinson took the field with the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking the color barrier in sports–he was the first black to integrate professional sports in the USA. Many of you probably don’t know anything about baseball. Many of you probably don’t know who Jackie was. Most of you probably don’t know that this was the probably the most important event in America’s, if not the world’s, racial relations.

Jackie Robinson playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1954. Copyright held by United State Library of Congress, freely licensed.
Jackie Robinson playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1954. Copyright held by United State Library of Congress, freely licensed.

Jackie Robinson was an incredible man by any measure. He went to UCLA, even though few blacks went to university, even in mostly integrated California. He joined the United States Army during World War II, and because one of the few blacks who were able to get into Officer Candidate School, which trains new commissioned officers in the Army. Even though he couldn’t deploy with his battalion to Europe during the war because of racism in the Army, he served until he was honorably discharged.

When Jackie played baseball,  he was assaulted by more hatred and bigotry than any normal person probably could endure. When the Dodgers would go to southern cities like St. Louis or Atlanta, he was treated horribly by the racists of the time. In fact, his treatment in presumably more liberal cities in the north was hardly different from what he experienced in the racially segregated South.

Jackie Robinson handled the racism, the taunts, and the hatred with a dignity and grace cannot be describe in words. And he lived through all of this, while being one of the stars of baseball, one of the greatest who ever played the game. 

But, it was just sports. How could that be so important? Because I can draw a straight line from Jackie breaking the race barrier of baseball directly to electing Barack Obama as President. The racism that we read on the back roads of the internet against President Obama is probably the same that Jackie heard. And both men stood above it.

I personally have lived in a glorious time in the world. Where science has begun to conquer ignorance, despite my most cynical moments. Where we can conquer diseases that used to kill. Where we can dream of putting men on Mars. And where a person’s color means nothing, and they can be president.

No, I am not naive. I don’t think the world of race is filled with rainbows and unicorns. I still hear overt racism amongst whites. I still run into horrifying anti-Semitism amongst people who should have learned their lesson of the destructive power of racial hatred in World War II. 

But today, I watch sports, and I don’t care if someone is African-American or Hispanic or Asian or Jewish or a good old white Euro-American. Frankly, I want my team to win. When I was in the corporate world, I only cared if a person was ambitious and intelligent and demanding of success. Your skin color mattered not. I wanted to win market share and increase profits, and a person’s color was irrelevant to my desire to win.

And my attitude, my feelings toward my fellow man, are in a direct line from a man who played baseball well before I was born, or even had any interest in the sport. And every person of color in sport today, whether its baseball, football (American or otherwise), hockey, basketball owes their livelihood to Jackie Robinson. I can even draw a line from Jackie Robinson starting in the game of baseball to Neil deGrasse Tyson teaching us all about the universe. And we’re all better for this.

So even if you don’t like baseball, or don’t even know anything about the sport. Or if you don’t like sports in general. We should all honor Jackie Robinson for his courage, dignity, and perseverance–he gave us a slightly more wonderful world.

One hour of research on Google–obviously all science is wrong

I’ve been told that I need to quit relying on the peer-reviewed journals for my scientific knowledge, because they are paid for by Big Government, Big Pharma, Big Agra, Big Hebrew and Big Whatever. They’re all just big with every single person involved dedicated to providing information to fool the people of earth. 

Science is obviously wrong about everything. Including unicorns. Obviously wrong about unicorns.
Science is obviously wrong about everything. Including unicorns. Obviously wrong about unicorns.

Apparently, the only acceptable type of research is doing it yourself using Google. Or in a pinch, Bing. 

Because I wanted to be more open-minded and to learn the Truth™ about everything. And here’s what I found. Continue reading “One hour of research on Google–obviously all science is wrong”

Neil DeGrasse Tyson vs. The Health Ranger–your debate prediction

As I wrote recently, the Great American Loon, Mike Adams (and reigning #1 on the list of American Loons) has claimed that because he follows advice of Neil DeGrasse Tyson, which is to ”follow the evidence wherever it leads, and question everything.”

Adams wants Tyson to join him in denouncing vaccines because of the mercury content. I kind of thought the mercury trope was dead, but I keep having to remind myself that these tropes tend to become zombies and arise many times. Anyways, you can read this, this, and this all of which pretty much debunks everything about mercury, vaccines, and autism. 

Since Dr. Tyson has already given full-throated support to vaccinations (including during a zombie apocalypse, but that’s another story), the probability that Mike Adams is going to get word one out of him can be measure in billionths of a percent. 

But let’s imagine they did have a debate. What do you think will happen? Vote early and vote often. You actually can only vote once per day, but I love that saying.

Natural News claims it follows evidence like Neil DeGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson at The Amazing Meeting 6, 2008. Wikipedia Commons license.
Neil deGrasse Tyson at The Amazing Meeting 6, 2008. Wikipedia Commons license.

The lunatic Mike Adams, self-styled Health Ranger, pusher of pseudoscience, and publisher of the ignorant self-congratulatory, pseudoscientific website, Natural News, has issued an insane “challenge” to Neil DeGrasse Tyson, eminent astrophysicist, real scientist, and inheritor of Carl Sagan’s common-man touch about the wonders of science.

What is this challenge? Well, Adams claims that since Tyson, who stated, in the new series Cosmos, that “follow the evidence wherever it leads, and question everything,” then because Adams only follows the evidence in his “cutting-edge science” publication, Natural News, then Tyson ought to accept all of the evidence uncovered about vaccines.

OK, before you read the next sentence, please put down your coffee or other liquid refreshment, take a deep breath, exhale. Then Adams demanded that “Neil DeGrasse Tyson, will you publicly denounce the use of mercury in medicine and join the growing call for mercury-free medicine?”

What mercury used in medicine? Oh yeah, that old thiomersal in vaccines trope. The thiomersal which is an organo-mercury molecule that is quickly cleared from the body by the incredibly efficient kidneys. Or the thiomersal that was removed from vaccines despite no evidence that it did anything to anyone getting an immunization. 

Even though Tyson is an astrophysicist, he really does follow the evidence. And believe it or not, Neil DeGrasse Tyson has said something about vaccines. He accepts that they work.

Getting over the laughable claim that Mike Adams thinks he follows any evidence, unless by evidence we mean pseudoscience that supports his ignorant beliefs about medicine, his challenge to Tyson is just plain ridiculous. Tyson, like any good scientists, accepts vaccines as safe and effective.

Visit the Science-based Vaccine Search Engine.